Clock Repair Archive for notes from the bench

Please be aware that this is an archive of notes and specifications and as such is unedited and quite disorganized. The intended audience is persons working in the clock repair industry and those with extensive mechanical experience attempting to learn the trade.
This link will take you to the current index and information page. I would suggest trying it first, as the rest of this archive is quite large.


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Copyright (c) 2002 David Tarsi. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being no invariant sections, with the Front-Cover Texts being no Front-Cover Texts, and with the Back-Cover Texts being no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

The content of this website and journal has been prepared to provide information on the authors experience. The information is not a complete source. Use at your own risk. Any advice given by the author also is covered by this statement. This website and journal is not endorsed by any manufacturers mentioned. This website and journal has no connection whatsoever to any of the manufacturers mentioned. Your use of this information and your use of any advice given by the author is your acceptance of responsibility for all consequenses resulting in such use. No legal liability attaches to the author, the website, or the isp for any inaccurate or misleading information contained on the website and journal at any time or for the consequences of any errors or omissions or for the use of said information. However if written notice is given to the webmaster of inaccuracies or omissions, the author will endeavor to establish the factual position and where necessary correct the content of the website and journal.

Page last modified    16 June 2013
ABOUT THIS JOURNAL / ARCHIVE

June 16, 2013:
This archive was started over 25 years ago, when I was working as a clock repair technician. I spent nearly a quarter of a century in that work. This was before the World Wide Web existed as we know it and long before cell phones or any of the electronics we now consider common existed. When I started as a clock repair technician, personal computers were unheard of, and the internet did not exist. Hand held scientific calculators, such as the TI-83 were also unheard of. At that point in time mechanical clocks were quite relevant, and had been for over 150 years. They are still relevant. I am still monitoring these web pages and this website. Hopefully I will have time to complete this "e book" before my time here is finished.
These notes were initially made to help me remember key concepts and critical information regarding all the different clocks I had worked on and all the important concepts needed to successfully restore antique clocks. Most of these notes will not be of much use to the "average" person. The actual experience of working on clocks is necessary to enable understanding these notes.

This is a work in progress , far from finished. I have made the format simple so it will be readable by as many as possible. In other words no pictures with animation and huge bandwidth. No special programs are required to read this on the web. Any operating system that will support even the simplest browser , including text browsers , will be able to display this information. This is very bland and boring you might say. You are probably right ; however I will continue to offer this text version because it is fast and does not exclude those persons , who by no fault of their own , do not have access to high speed internet connections or expensive computer equipment (Yes , to many people new computer equipment is very expensive and out of reach). I have included some pictures but they are in links to keep things as fast as possible. Please be aware that when you click on a link to a picture it may take considerable time for the page to download if you have a slow connection. There is much information here and I must admit it is very disorganized and somewhat cryptic at times as you read through.The reason is that this is a collection of notes made at the bench while doing repair over a period of about 15 years with information added from additional experience prior to that time period. These are pretty much still in the "notes" phase , useful mainly to other repair persons. As I get time I will be editing this document , so it should improve greatly with time. The subjects links now(07/20/02) cover about 1/10 of the total document in it's current condensed form.

Why put them on the net now when they are just a bunch of disorganized notes ? First , clock repair is a trade with skills that are not widely published. Second, clock repair is an old trade and information technology is a new trade. It is my opinion that mixing the two is very important mainly because they both should exist to help people and together they can both be of more use to all persons. Information itself is , in my opinion , to be shared with all persons. This is how we grow and change for the betterment of all humanity. I don't mean to say that clock repair will help all humanity. It is merely a small part of the huge sphere of general knowledge. There are many aspects of clock repair that will help people get a different perspective on life itself , and some if it is just downright interesting to many people.

You can use the "find" function in your browser to search for terms. For example if you want to know what is here regarding antique Seth Thomas clocks ; just type that in the find box the your browser produces and you will be able to read what is in this archive about those clocks.At this point in time this is intended mainly for use by repair persons looking for help with a particular problem clock. In the future there will be many revisions hopefully making this information much easier to use.


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Subject links

Antique cuckoo specs
Chain problems
Cuckoo clock chain fitting
Date code
Dial removal
Eight day Regula cuckoo
E Ingraham duplex no 3
Elliott clock
Gilbert
GNU Free Documentation License
Golden Hour clock glass
Herschede
How to drill glass
Junghans
Lubrication
Mainspring specs
New Haven
Oil
Saw clock(rack clock)
Sessions Inlay Number 6
Seth Thomas 115d
Seth Thomas a-200
Seth Thomas ships clock military time
Seth Thomas 124
Ships bell sequence
Strike hammer support spring
Suspension repair
Telechron
Tools
Waterbury 3 plate w/c


INTRODUCTION

Over the years there have been millions of clocks made ; with thousands of various models and styles , both in case style and mechanism design. The scope of this journal covers clocks made from the late 1700's to the present day (1990's). The information presented here is based on approximately 25 years of involvement in various aspects of clock repair, which include: manufacturing of new clocks ; retail repair at the bench ; some counter work ; many hours of customer contact on the telephone ,and some management duties. I will be attempting to present all that I have learned so others will have the opportunity to benefit from this information.

One of the biggest problems in clock repair is , in my opinion , fixing clocks that have already been fixed and still don't work. Look for blobs of solder, sheet metal screws super glue or other types of glue ,and excessive amounts of oil. These are warning signals, if you see any of these , be prepared to find all sorts of problems when doing the work. Another problem which shows up when repair shops get busy is the continued barrage of interruptions from various sources such as telephone calls ,customers , and questions from trainees. If you are managing a repair shop , keep in mind that after a certain point the number of interruptions that you allow your repair technicians to endure will reduce their efficiency so as to make them totally useless as technicians , or receptionists! Not that there is anything wrong with receptionists or technicians , just that their jobs are not compatible. I will be covering mostly mechanical repair , and not much on case repair, as this is woodworking and is not my expertise.If you are repairing clocks for a living , there is a balance to be maintained. Enough work needs to be done to make a living , but without sacrificing quality . Sometimes it is best to tell a customer no rather than do a halfway job because it will usually come back to haunt you ; or worse it won't come back to you ; but to the other shop in town.

Repairing clocks requires the patience of a saint , resourcefulness and creativity , and far above average mechanical aptitude. Unfortunately clock repair is an occupation that has about as many ways to do things as there are people doing them . There are "correct" ways to do things that work ; and there are ways to do things that work. "Correct" yes, but by whose standards? In countries other than the U.S. there are clock guilds that establish methods of repair. These guilds have had, in the past, the power to regulate the clock repair and manufacturing activites in their geographical areas of influence. In the present time these kinds of organizations do not have as much power as they did in the past.

Usually if a clock doesn't work there is not much physical danger to anyone; however, if someone works on your car's brake system and that system fails the results can be fatal, so government regulation is therefore necessary to preserve people's safety. This means there are correct ways to fix brakes and incorrect ways to fix them and it is mandatory that they be fixed the "correct" way. This situation does not exist with clocks. If your clock gets fixed in a manner that is not "correct" it may still work , and work just fine. If you are a hobbyist fixing clocks for fun , then you make your own rules. When fixing clocks for a living , the temptation to get the job done as quickly as possible is often too great for many to resist ; and as a result work is often done in what I call a "quick fix" manor ( blobs of solder ; pieces of brass glued to the plate I guess to supposedly hold pivots in place ; blobs of glue holding levers together ; screw on bushings ; teeth tack - soldered on the outside of gears; the list goes on). These tactics often work and work quite well for some time. Sometimes things go wrong that even the best repair person cannot anticipate.For example I have disassembled clocks that have come to me for repair with many nice looking bushings installed only to find pivots that have nicks and pits and scratches all over them. This can happen even if the repair person was very careful to polish the pivots and fit the new bushings before putting the clock back together. My position is that clock repair should , as closely as possible , restore a clock to its original condition. How do you know what "original condition is". You deal with customers over and over again who bring clocks in that have been in their family for 100 and sometimes 150 years and they tell you what its history is. You see these situations over and over again and after 10 or 15 years you will know the meaning of "original condition". Often times this is not a good way to make a living because the time involved is too great , or the skills needed simply do not exist to restore a clock to original condition. However, many times modern replacement parts are available that will very closely match the original part. This helps. What I am attempting to do here is give my perspective on repair. I know what works and what does not work. I have seen many short cuts people have used that worked for a while. I have seen how those short cuts fail. This tells me not to use them.

About the author:
David worked in the clock repair trade for nearly 25 years and spent about two thirds of that time at the bench doing actual repair work. The rest of the time was devoted to telephone customer service, new hire training and direct contact with customers at the counter. At the beginning of his career he spent about five years in the manufacturing clocks. He has an extensive background in electronics and nine years of experience in computer programming and networking. David has Associate of Arts degree from Edmonds Community College and a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Washington.


ASSORTED SPECIFICATIONS

Seth Thomas Adamantine label # 295G (has the number 89-0 stamped on the bottom right back corner just above the plate bolt) : the suspension thickness is .003 inches ; the pendulum length is 6 1/8 inches (from the bottom of the pendulum to the regulator tab + ½ inch space to regulate ) total effective pendulum length being 6 1/8 inches; has a bell mounted on the back of the movement for half hour strike; the pendulum weighs 4.5 ounces and is non adjustable and has a diameter of 1.75 inches with a thickness of .465 inches ; takes a # 65 key ; has a coil gong ; minute hand can be turned backwards ( to 12 and back to 9 and back to 12 again to set the strike ) ; turn the regulator to the right to make the clock run faster or to the left to make the clock run slower ( 1 turn = 2 minutes in 24 hours.)


E. Ingraham Duplex No. 3 :   back to top

The regulator is located above the 12 on the dial: turn it to the right to make the clock run slower or to the left to make the clock run faster ( 1 turn = about 5 minutes in 24 hours) The pendulum length when the clock is keeping time is 5 ¼inches (plus or minus 1/32 inch) measured from the centerpost to the bottom of the pendulum bob. The pendulum weighs 2 ounces , has a diameter of 1 5/8 inches and a thickness or .25 inches. The clock takes a # 65 key ; the label in the back says : E. Ingraham Bristol Conn. U.S.A. clocks and watches Est. 1835


Sessions Inlay No. 6   back to top :

The pendulum length is 6.5 inches from regulator tab to the bottom of the pendulum bob plus 3/8 inch travel on the regulator ( the total effective length when the clock is keeping time is 6.5 inches) ; the minute hand can be turned backwards ; to make the clock run faster turn the regulator to the left to make it run slower turn the regulator to right 1 turn of the regulator = approximately 5 .5 minutes in 24 hours ; the regulator shaft takes a number 3 size key the spring arbors take a number 6 key which fits quite snugly.


Waterbury triple plate w/c :   back to top

The pendulum length is 7 ¼ inches from the top of the suspension to the bottom of the pendulum. The center arbor winds to the right , the right arbor winds to the left . and the left arbor winds to the right. The suspension spring is .0035in. thick , and 1.6 inches long . The key size is somewhere between a 7 and an 8 , an 8 fits loosely and a 7 fits very tightly. The regulator end is between a 3 and a 5 ; the 5 will work but it is quite snug. Measurements for the waterbury triple plate westminster chime mechanism: Chime mainspring: .0225in. X .874in. X 78in. Strike mainspring : .014in. X .750in. X 96: Time mainspring: .018in. X .750in. X 96in.


date codes :   back to top

1990 - A 1991 - B 1992 - C 1993 - D 1994 - E 1995 - F 1996 - G


ASSORTED SPECIFICATIONS

antique cuckoo:   back to top

Antique cuckoo: 3rd wheel strike has 54 teeth ; is 1.60 in. in diameter .054 inches thick ; this is in a count wheel type mechanism with cast plates 3.5 inches by 3.5 inches and typically about 3/32 of an inch in thickness. There is no name stamped on the plates. This information is provided to give you an idea of where to start if you have a mechanism with no main wheel or a main wheel that is badly damaged. Most of these mechanisms are similar. The number of teeth and diameter could be calculated however the thickness of the gear you would not know for sure unless you actually had a sample , and since this is a strike gear train wheel , the calculations will not be as simple as if it were a time gear train because you really don't know how fast that governor "should" be turning without some fairly involved engineering. I have measured these wheels with a micrometer. I realize that there may be variations , but since this is an original wheel you have information that is much better than a guess.


new haven time and strike:   back to top

The New Haven time and strike mechanism (standard design ) mainspring measurements :Time: .0175 inches strong by 3/4 inches wide by 96 inches long ; Strike: .014 inches strong by 3/4 inches wide by 96 inches long .


telechron:   back to top

Telechron electrics that don't have keyholes for setting the strike and chime sequence can be set up by lining up the indentations on the back with the holes in the hammer lift cam instead of using the key pins. You are doing essentially the same thing as putting the pins through the "indexing" holes. The difference is that it might take several tries before you get the shutoff exactly correct.
There have been Telechron clocks made with rack and snail type of design for the strike. The main thing to keep in mind is that this style must have no load on the hammers when the strike shuts off , or they will continue to strike sometimes and sometimes not. The shutoff lever for the strike hits the long pin and pops the strike drive gear away from the main rotor / time gear (which gives it its power). That pin must not be loose. If it is even slightly loose (and they do get loose) the clock will not work correctly all the time. The strike shutoff cam hammers must just have dropped when the cam is in the shutoff position. If this is not set within ten thousandths of an inch the clock will not work correctly all the time.


DRILLING GLASS:   back to top

To drill a hole in glass with a diamond tipped drill bit use a leather washer with a bead of water in the center hole over where the hole is to be drilled ; this will allow for cooling and prevent the drill bit from wearing out prematurely. Drill very very slowly with light pressure and only about halfway through ;then turn the piece over and drill the rest of the way through. The glass must be supported by a surface that is absolutely FLAT AND LEVEL.By drilling in this way you avoid cracking the glass when tbe drill bit breaks through on the other side. Use the - water in the middle - technique on the other side also of course.


seth thomas a-200:   back to top

The seth thomas a-200 movement strike mainspring is .018in strong by .682in wide ; and the time mainspring is .014 in strong by . 682 in wide and both 96 inches long. This is the mechanism that is used in their banjo clock of the early 1900's.The return spring on the Seth Thomas time and strike 891m shutoff is .010in. and is usually 5 turns. Regulation on the Seth Thomas A- 200 series movement : turn to the left for slower or to the right for faster .4 1/3 minutes per day - 1 turn.


8 day regula:   back to top

The 8 day Regula cuckoo bird door will flop open/shut/open/shut/open/shut when the cuckoo is activated if the door is set to open too far and/or there is too much pressure on the door/bird wire caused by this or any other situation that puts too much pressure on the door. It must be free to open and close and not bind at all. Some of these mechanisms have a shutoff cam that has a bushing-like center on it. Do not try to pry to off, it will come apart. Use a small flat punch when the clock is apart. Support the plate with an anvil and carefully punch the shaft out taking care to not damage the end of the shaft .


SHIPS BELL SEQUENCE:   back to top

The information here has been temporarily removed. If you would like the ships bell information you can email me at


HERSCHEDE   back to top

The Herschede with the imitation mercury pendulum has a weight inside the center of the imitation vial. It is hidden so be aware of this and check it out if there is an unexplained regulation problem. This weight can slide up and down inside and disrupt the center of gravity on the pendulum. If the clock runs fast and can't be slowed down the weight is probably stuck in the up position inside the cylinder.


gilbert time and strike:   back to top

Many of the Gilbert time and strike mantle clocks with count wheels that have two 12 hour sections on them will be ok on one half and not ok on the other side ; so be sure to check them all the way around on both 12 hour sections.


seth thomas 124:   back to top

Regulation on the Seth Thomas 124:turn the regulator to the left for slower and turn the regulator to the right to make the clock run faster. 1 turn = 2 1/2 minutes per day.The seth thomas 124 must be checked at 12 and 1 o'clock because the hour snail will force against the rack and the snail will sometimes be moved when the clock runs down if the customer forces the hands ahead before the strike finishes lifting the rack.


seth thomas ships clock(military time):   back to top

Seth Thomas made a ships clock with an extra hand (gold colored) . It is a 24 hour clock (the dial shows time increments Of 24 hours.) It is made to run for 8 days.There are 2 hour hands on the same tube (shaft) : one is for local time and one is for GMT. The serial # is 5164. Apparently made in March of 1943. The number on the dial is 19 18086 17.


suspension repair:   back to top

To put a hole in a suspension spring: use a sharp punch with an aluminum block on the bottom of the spring. Strike the suspension spring using the punch and a small hammer. The punch must be sharp and harder than the suspension spring. The aluminum will be hard enough to keep the spring from cracking , yet soft enough to allow the punch to put a small hole in the spring material that can then be enlarged with a 5 sided reamer.


elliot clocks:   back to top

Elliott clocks: to remove the mechanism take the chapter ring off; the mechanism mounting screws are behind it. Hammer sequence: whitington . from the front: 12364758 .The night shutoff silences at 11pm and comes back on again at 7 am.


strike hammer support spring:   back to top

The modern german floor clock mechanism strike hammer support spring on the grandfather clock mechanisms is .0075 inches thick and .200 inches wide.


junghans:   back to top

The large westminster chime mechanisms made by Junghans in the early 1900's uses a return spring on the trip lever that is .015 inches in diameter. It is usually made of brass.


seth thomas 115d:   back to top

The Seth Thomas 115d is a ships strike round mechanism. It uses a non - imported balance wheel unit. It uses a cam on the idler gear connected to the minute wheel to make the odd count ; it lifts the lever that catches the hammer The rack uses a counter weight with a return spring to facilitate it's operation. The return spring on the rack is .010 inches n diameter. The rack has a spring loaded index end that will release if the mechanism is allowed to run down , in case the hands are moved before the rack has cleared the snail. The spring for this is .021 inches in diameter. The strike trip lever return spring is .013 in. diameter brass wire with a .010 wire inside the plate also. The hammer return spring is .016 in. diameter brass wire. Be sure is at least 180 degrees or rotation on the warning wheel after the warning position or the odd hour strikes will be erratic because the hammer catch won't always hook.


golden hour clock glass:   back to top

Golden hour clock glass hole is ¼ inch , glass diameter is 7in. .126in. thick.


european mainsprings:   back to top

popular european mechanism mainspring specs in inches ( LISTED width X strength X length):

#10 --- .669X .0177 X 58.6
#11 --- .669 X .0157 X 47.25
#20 --- .669 X .015 X 47.25
#21 --- .669 X .0157 X 47.25
#30 --- .472 X .0157 X 43.25
#31 --- .472 X .0134 X 45.25
#32 ---- .472 X .0165 X 43,25
#33 ---- .472 X .0126 X 45.25
#40 ---- .669 X .015 X 43.25
#41 ---- .827 X .0157 X 45.25
#42 ---- .669 X .0157 X 43.25
#50 ---- .669 X .0157 X 47.25
#52 ---- .669 X .0165 X 47.25
#54 ---- .827 X .0165 X 75
#55 ---- .827X .0177 X 71
#56 ---- .669 X .015 X 47.25
#57 ----.669 X .0126 X 59

These are approximate measurements : width and strength are plus or minus .0015 inches; and length is plus or minus .1 inch.


HINTS ABOUT OILING AND LUBRICATION   back to top

mainsprings:

The mainspring is the heart of the timekeeping of any spring drive clock. If the mainspring is not oiled properly the clock will not work. The oil that is used is absolutely critical ; it must be able to work in a slow moving environment and it must be able to resist evaporation for many years. It is also very important that the oil be absolutely non corrosive. In my opinion the mainspring grease that is available through the various suppliers is probably the best to use. Listen to the mainspring unwinding as the strike runs if you hear the mainspring clunking or making a snapping noise : then the lubricant probably isn't working. If this situation exists in the time mainspring then the clock will not keep time and may not even run at all. Mainsprings in the older clocks that have been around for many years have a buildup of hardened oil that is not removed by the ultrasonic process. This must be removed, or the clock will not work.The mainspring will stick erratically and cause timekeeping problems, and may actually bind up and release suddenly and cause a tooth on the spring barrel to be bent or even bend a tooth on the second wheel. If this happens when no one is there to hear the spring snap, then you will be befuddled when the thing just stops working after a careful overhaul.I have used 0000 steel wool on mainsprings; have also tried very fine emery paper #1000 or crocus cloth. The problem with using emery paper is that extreme care must be taken to remove all of the residue from the cleaning with the emery paper or the mainspring will be worse that it was before it was cleaned.After the mainspring has been cleaned and polished, if you ,a clean soft light colored cloth can be used to remove the residue; then run the spring through the ultrasonic cleaner.


levers:

Levers that are attached to sleeves that ride on shafts should not be oiled : particularly those levers that depend on gravity to operate. The reason for this is that when the oil thickens up slightly the lever will not drop every time; or it will drop too slowly . A classic example is the count arm, or the rack as it is sometimes called. It will work just fine at first: then after several months the oil will thicken and the common complaint is: the clock only strikes 1 sometimes. If you feel you must oil the lever ; be sure that it is only the thinnest possible film; and .at that, you will be taking a chance. The more oil the more the chance of a problem.


gears:

If oil is placed on brass gears (gear teeth) in a slow moving gear train, the gear teeth will very likely be destroyed in several years. This applies particularly in the area of the higher power gears ; the main and second wheels.


types of oil to use:

The clock oil that is available through the suppliers that is made specifically for clocks is the only type , in my opinion , to use. The synthetic oil that is designed for brass on brass , brass on steel and steel on steel is the best. Do not use wd-40 , ever. It is a good lubricant , but not for clocks. It thickens up rapidly and will add enough friction to stop the clock in a few months. Be sure that oils are not mixed ; often the combination of two oils can cause chemical reactions that will corrode the steel pivots. Avoid oiling cuckoo clock mechanism levers whenever possible. The majority of these mechanisms use gravity to make the levers drop. An excessive amount of oil on a trip lever , for example, can cause it to fail. picture. How much oil is too much? If the oil is running out of the oil cup then it is too much. If there is no substantial oil cup then only oil enough to fill the space between the bushing and the pivot. Oil the hand clutch so the hands move smoothly when setting the time on the clock.Do not oil moon dials.Do not oil calendar mechanisms. DO NOT EVER USE WD-40 ON ANY CLOCK.


TOOLS:   back to top

Be prepared to make your own tools or to modify commercially made items. Most of the tools that I have made have been made out of water hardening drill rod . punches: It is possible to buy commercially made punches in sets , but they will most likely not have all the combinations you need. It is not my intention to downplay commercially made tools ; and if you can afford them you will save a lot of time. Also , they can be altered if the need be . Tools picture , these are just some of the tools I have made and used.


countersink:

There is a countersink Countersink pictures that you will need ; actually you will probably need a set of them. These are available from various tool manufacturers; But you will probably have to make your own to custom fit to the bushing sizes. Many times it will be necessary to cut the protruding edge of a bushing flush with the plate surface to clear levers or gears that ride close to the plate. The countersink with the wooden holder is one that I use to actually put a "bevel" if you will, on the inside of bushings after they have been pressed into the plate and drilled to fit the size of the pivot. The reason for this is that after drilling or reaming, or what ever you do to get the pivot to fit in the bushing; there will be a slight edge on the inside of the hole. This , believe it or not , is enough to stop a clock ; particularly if the bushing is several gears up from the power. Putting the bevel inside the bushing keeps edges of the metal from interfering with the smooth motion of the gear. This is typical of the characteristics of slow moving low torque gear train action in clocks. The way things function in that type of environment are not the same as a fast moving gear train. This theory is covered later in this journal. I use this countersink by hand. Also , on the outside of the bushing (the part of the bushing facing away from between the two brass plates of the mechanism that contain the gears) a bevel will add to the ability of the bushing to hold oil as it is not desirable to have oil run down the outside of the plates leaving the bushing effectively almost "dry". You want a very slight bevel in the inside which is why you will probably want to use this tool by hand. The other "countersink" actually is for reducing the thickness of a bushing after it is installed , without disturbing the flat surface. Not all bushings fit the thickness of all plates , and sometimes it is absolutely necessary to reduce the thickness of a bushing because of its position relative to other moving parts. If the inside of the two cutting edges are shaped just right this countersink will do the "beveling" while you do the job of cutting the thickness of the bushing down. I have made mine out of drill rod. They can be hardened by dipping them in water after you have heated them with a propane torch until they are dull red hot. Be extremely careful when you are using any kind of heat or torch. I cannot stress this enough. You may need to practice some with the tempering process. If you get the metal too hot it will become brittle and will break easily. When properly tempered these tools will cut brass or bronze. I haven't tried cutting steel on a regular basis. I use emery paper with a solid backing to sharpen them.


Aluminum and brass blocks:

A couple of blocks of aluminum and brass about 3\4 inch square and 2 inches long will be quite useful. A small wooden mallet is very useful for installing cams , and friction fit sleeves made of brass. Make sure the wood is something hard like oak small brass headed hammer is also useful for working with punches to avoid flattening the ends of them as a steel hammer will do. Escape wheel teeth can be straightened by forming a piece of brass or soft steel rod to the shape of the space between teeth (providing there are at least 3 good teeth on the wheel; then work your way around the wheel pressing the piece between the teeth that are bent and after 2 or 3 times around the teeth will be quite uniform in distance from each other. Each time a pattern is made by all means mark it and save it because you will undoubtedly need it again.


SAW CLOCK (RACK CLOCK)   back to top

The saw clock has a face and case that slide down the saw or rack as it runs. The case is very heavy and is made of cast metal. The sheer weight of the clock makes it run. Essentially the weight of the "face and contents behind the face" is the power that makes the clock run. Keep in mind that this clock is marginally powered. This is not intended to be a critical comment indicating somehow that the clock is bad , or inferior. It is the design of the clock. They will run just fine if properly repaired and maintained. Set up is critical ; as is with many clocks. Keeping this clock out of the way of breezes from open windows or fans is very important. Be sure to check the verge pin working faces .If they are worn or if they are loose , the clock will not run. Check each bushing by observing them with an eye loop to see if either is worn oblong. If the bushing is worn you will need to correct that situation particularly if the pivot has a groove in it. Either replace them or turn them over. You can turn the pivot over so it will run on the other side of the pivot. ( This is an example of one of those type of repairs that will work , but is not necessary the "correct" way to do the job.) Also , be sure to check the idler gear on the front plate ; be sure it is not loose enough to cause the mechanism to jam up. More that 2 or 3 thousandths of an inch of wear may cause problems. The saw clock has a couple of critical areas that one must be aware of or successful repair may be impossible. The pendulum portion of the clock is very touchy.It must be balanced perfectly. That is to say it must be in beat perfectly and must be as close to the dial face as possible without hitting the handnut or hand or dial face. If the adjustable weight is bent too far out it adds too much drag to the verge pivots for the clock to run. With the movement module plumb the pendulum should be free to move with less than a whisper of air movement. The rack portion of this clock is also quite critical. It must be absolutely clean and STRAIGHT. Be sure to check the rack to see if it is straight. If it is crooked or bowed straighten it .

CUCKOO CLOCK CHAIN FITTING    back to top

Determining the correct type of chain: If you have a cuckoo clock that does not have any chains or has chains that do not work correctly there is a way to determine what chain to use. First ,count the number of teeth on the sprocket PICTURE and measure the effective diameter of the sprocket. Keep in mind that most cuckoo clocks sprockets / chains use every other link , so the distance between sprocket teeth must match the distance between 3 centers of links. Use the formula to find the circumference of a circle; to find the distance around the sprocket exterior ; then divide that by the number of teeth to determine the required distance between every other link ie: the distance between sprocket tooth ends. The wire diameter must be such that the links will set in the saddle of the sprocket enclosure without climbing out as the sprocket turns as the clock is running or when the clock is being wound. The links should sit approximately 50% of the way down on the tooth. The final test, however, is whether or not the chain pulls through without any places that bind up. The chain must run though SMOOTHLY or the clock will not work. If the links climb up on the sprocket teeth when the chain is pulled though, then the chain is not the correct link per foot count or the wire diameter is wrong.

DIAL REMOVAL   back to top

Many of the modern triple chime / westminster chime wall clocks available today that use popular european mechanisms have the mechanism mounted to the dial with threaded studs that are fastened to the wooden dial back by screws from the front , hidden behind the dial face. This in itself is not a problem if the dial face comes off easily .However this is not usually the case. Often the dial faces are glued on and will be destroyed or disfigured in the attempt to remove them. In most cases the dial face does not have to be removed. First ; LET THE MAINSPRINGS DOWN. Then loosen the movement mounting studs attached to the threaded posts on the back of the mechanism. Do not take them all the way off ; but allow enough slack for the movement post to be turned freely. Now , simply unscrew the movement posts from the studs mounted to the back of the dial. The bolt in the middle of the mechanism will hold the mechanism together while the posts are being turned.Take care to make sure the posts that are mounted to the dial don't move while you are loosening the movement posts; they are attached under the dial face and may be impossible to tighten up if they come loose.

CHAIN PROBLEMS   back to top

CHAIN PROBLEMS: Be aware that chains can stretch and, this will change the effective center to center distance between links , also affecting the links per foot count. Look for links that are not totally closed.Squeeze them shut if possible. Where there are smaller chains (50- 60 links per foot or more) be particularly aware of chain links getting caught on each other , and knotting up. If this is not noticed before the knotted area of the chain gets inside the movement enclosure , it may not be discovered and you will have another unexplained problem.

				Assorted Specifications

	International Time recording company of new york  (of Endicott New York)  :  
worked on a clock that had this name on it. Four patent dates on the bottom of dial
panel: October 4 1904 ; March 28 1905 ; May 19 1908 ; September 28 1909.  It is a 
dual mainspring time only unit with run down  indicators on the dial face. Has winding
stops. The mainsprings are .035 inches strong by ¾ inches wide and approx. 8 feet long.  
it has a  dead beat escapement. Has a chrome colored pendulum  weighing about 8 pounds.  
The key is huge ; the arbors measure .275 inches square  with diagonal measurement 
of .375 inches. The key measures .290 inches square and the diagonal measurement
of the key is .385 inches. The entire clock weighs about 40 pounds or so and the case 
is made of Oak. The numbers stamped on the mechanism are 88  10810  and .037.
	
	E ingraham 8 day time and strike tambour mantle with hammer and bell. 
The mainsprings 
measure .018 inches by ¾ inches by 96inches.  The pendulum length is 5.25 inches 
with 2.5 ounce pend . Printing stamped on the mechanism: E. Ingraham co. Bristol 
ct. usa.       
	The Waterbury time and strike tambour mantle clock with steel plates and brass 
bushings that has the name Cheyene on the bottom of the case along with the number 12934 
stamped on the paper has a strike mainspring not quite as strong as the typical 8 day 
american clock. The time mainspring measures the same: .016 INCHES  STRONG 
PLUS OR MINUS .0005 INCHES BY .075 INCHES PLUS OR MINUS .010 INCHES
BY 96 INCHES LONG PLUS OR MINUS 3 INCHES. 
	
	Waterbury LARGE  time only with second hand . Called the walnut regulator #9. 
The suspension is .0025 inches strong. The distance between the pins on the suspension is
very critical because of the way the pendulum hooks on to the suspension.  The distance
should be .895 inches. The thickness of the brass used in the suspension should be
.060 inches. The pendulum is extremely heavy. It attaches to the suspension by means 
of a screw and a hook.
	
	Very large grandfather clock called  Jacques  named after the designer 
Charles Jacque . The mechanism was made in Europe and the rest of the clock was
made in America. This particular model has seven melodies ; one for each day of the
week. It automatically changes each day.  There are 13 tubes in this particular one. 
the wall thickness of the tubes is .040 inches and the outside diameter of the tubes is 
1.1275 inches.  The order of hanging of the tubes is as follows: looking at the front of 
the clock take note of the dial ; and the position of the 12 , 3 , 6 , and 9 : the 
shortest tube is located on the left side (or the 9 side) . The tubes will be given
numbers here for reference purposes the shortest being #13 and the longest being #1.The 
order of position from left to right is :
 13 ; 10 ; 7 ; 5 ; 2 ; 1 ; 3 ; 4 ; 6 ; 8 ; 9 ; 11 ; 12. 
	The top of the pendulum is held to the rest of it by a thumbscrew : be sure
that the indents are in the top and bottom holes and the thumbscrew is in the middle 
hole or the clock may run either very fast or very slow. 
	
	Seth Thomas time and strike  Mantle clock with fishing scene on the glass 
(silver color). 
Has 5  7/8 stamped on the movement . Made in Thomaston Ct. Has the Seth Thomas 
emblem stamped on the plate immediately below the suspension post. The mechanism 
has Lyre shaped plates ; and the main wheels are the ribbed type.  The pendulum is 
silver  colored with circle designs on it. The strike mainspring is : .019 inches strong 
by .690 inches wide by approximately 96 inches long.  
	The time mainspring is .016 inches strong by .690 inches wide by 
approximately 96 inches long. One of the plate screws is directly below the escape
wheel . To get the screw out without damaging the escape wheel simply loosen the
screws on the other 3 posts then move the escape wheel out of the holder by bending
it up just enough to clear the escape wheel pivot so the wheel will drop back far enough
to loosen the screw.  
This mechanism does not have return springs on the shutoff arms. 
	Seth Thomas clock that has paper in the back that says  Eight Day Half Hour 
Strike . Has 5 7/8  ½ stamped on the movement plate (lower strike side) . The strike 
mainspring and the time mainspring are the same. .018in. by .690in. by 116in. long. The
suspension spring is .003 inches strong by .250 inches wide by .860 inches long
(pin to pin) . The leader plus susp is 6 5/8 inches long ; the pendulum is 2.5 inches
in diameter and weighs 5.5 ounces. the length of the adjusting threads is 7/8 inches ; 
the length of the brass portion of the suspension is 5.5 inches.  This particular
mechanism has a retaining lever that holds the strike trip lever stable . It rides on 
the shaft of the idler gear in the time train. There is a steel pin protruding from 
this lever that allows the trip lever to rest on it. This clock has an alarm in it . 
The spring for the alarm is
.250 inches wide and .012 inches strong and when fully wound the spring has a
diameter of .660 inches.  

	The sonora chime by Seth Thomas that has dual chimes (whittington
and westminster )  has 2 small dials about 1 ½ inches in diameter on the top of the
face .  One of them is for the chime selection and the other is for the timekeeping
adjustment. The mainspring in the chime unit is larger than in the single chime 
unit; it's dimensions are: strength: .00215inches by 1.375 inches wide by approximately
106 inches long. The sequence of the hammers is as follows: looking in the back of the 
case assign numbers to the hammers and let the hammer closest to the back be #1 . 
The wittington sequence is as follows at the quarter hour chime: 1, 4, 6, 7, 2 ,3 ,5 ,8.
The westminster chime at the quarter hour is:  6, 7 ,2 ,8.


				KUNDO ELECTRONIC:

	The Kundo ELECTRONIC clock ( made by Kieninger and Obergfell in Germany )
uses a 1.5 volt power source. The blue wire is to be hooked to the negative and the red
wire should be hooked to the positive side of the battery source. This particular type of 
clock has a transistorized multivibrator circuit inside the bottom of the case That , if
working properly , sends a pulse to the coil at precise intervals to make the pendulum
swing. There is only one coil on this model and the lever on top that advances the gear
train one space at a time does not have an electrical switch as an integral part of it. 
The suspension spring measures : .002 inches strong by .160 inches wide both sides ; 
brass thickness  is .061 inches. Pin to hole distance is : .385 inches. 


				ASSORTED SPECIFICATIONS:

	Technical  information about the Seth Thomas #113A mechanism.The 
mechanism plays the westminster chime on a set of 5 rods friction fit into a gong
block that says Mayland  NY  USA on it . The rods are a steel color and are .116
inches in diameter. This particular mechanism has 10521 stamped directly below the
in.Seth Thomas # 113 A  identification on the back plate. The suspension spring is 
.003 inches strong by .250 inches wide and the distance between the pins is 1.060 inches. 
The pendulum leader is 3.225 inches long.  The winding gears are the same IE: the small
gears that go on the arbors are all the same (diameter and tooth count )  and the larger 
gears are also the same likewise.  The time and strike barrells are identical in that
they both have the same tooth count and the same diameter and the same barrell diameter
and the same width :  76 teeth 2.255 inches diameter (gear end)  2.046 inches barrell 
diameter  and 1.040 inches thick. The chime barrell has a gear diameter of 2.505 inches 
and barrell diameter of 2.315 inches and a thickness of 1.150 inches and a tooth 
count of 84. The self correct spring is made of blued steel and has a dimple on the
end . It is .165 inches wide and .009 inches strong. The chime trip lever cog has a
return spring that is .013 inches strong. The strike shutoff lever return spring is
.014 inches strong. The chime trip lever return spring is also .014 inches strong. The 
chime mainspring is 1in. by .018in. by 92 inches ; the strike and time mainsprings are
the same : .875in. by .018in. by 82 inches. The 113A ; 113; and 113AB take different
mainsprings. The strike shutoff cam on this clock wears towards the rack and 
consequentially it will bind when it finally wears down far enough to bottom out on the
rack.


	Waterbury triple plate westminster chime mechanism: mainspring specs: 
Time mainspring: .018in. X .750in. X 96in.
Strike mainspring: .014in. X .750in. X 96in.
Chime mainspring: .0225in. X .874in. X 78in.
At this time there is no replacement available for the chime mainspring; it must be
custom made.

	New Haven: Small beehive style mantle with a round mechanism (spring drive) 8
day the information on the inside back gives regulation parameters. The name of the 
clock is the Petite.  Regulator: ¼ turn = 1 minute in 24 hours. This is from the original
instructions from the factory.

				Seth Thomas 124 : 
	Rack return spring : .010in. / Suspension spring thickness: .001in. 
.900in. long , .190in. wide. Hammer return spring: .016in. strong, trip lever return 
spring: .010in.  inside plate , .013 outside plate. Regulation on the Seth Thomas 124: 
left for slower , right for faster 2 ½ minutes per day = 1 turn.
	
	Regulation on Seth Thomas A--- 200 series    movement : left for slower ,
right for faster 4 1/3 minutes per day = 1 turn.
	The Kieninger strike hammer support spring is  .0075in. thick and .200in. wide. 
These are used on the ksu movement. 
The Junghans w/c mechanism return spring on the trip lever is .015in. ; it is usually 
brass.
	There is a mantle clock made by Sessions that is a time only  clock ; but looks
like a time and strike unit in every way except there is only one place to wind the clock. 
The clock says No. 706 eight day time on the back  on the label . It is an eight day clock. 
The clock says  Made In USA on the dial but thats all. The mechanism is stamped made by  
Sessions clock company , Forrestville  on the front plate. 
	

			GENERAL INFORMATION (TOOLS)

	There is a countersink tool that you will inevitably need. Actually a set of them
will probably be needed . PICTURE These are available from various tool manufacturers ; 
however it will probably be necessary to make your own to custom fit to the bushing sizes.
Many times it will be necessary to cut the protruding edge of a bushing flush with the
plate surface to clear levers or gears that ride close to the plate. I have made mine 
out of  drill rod. Harden them by dipping them in water immediately after heating them
to a  cherry red . They will cut brass or bronze quite well  however cutting steel will
dull them very quickly. 
	Keep on hand a couple of blocks of aluminum and brass about ¾ in. square 
and 21/2 in. long. Three sets of numbered drill bits 60 through 80 and 1 through  60 and
lettered drill bits will be absolutely necessary. Use the blocks to provide custom drilled
holes when there is a need for a specific size and depth. Yes the aluminum and brass
is soft but that is precisely what is needed most of the time. The aluminum or brass will
hold the shaft or pivot while the collar or gear is driven on without damaging it. It is 
often necessary to have a hole precisely fit to a shaft to install or remove collars or
gears and the only way to do this is to drill the holes to fit the shaft exactly. 
	A keyboard ; a board with holes drilled for each size of key will be convenient 
to carry from clock to clock so that the necessary key will be available with a minimum
of running around the shop. 
	In my opinion , a watchmakers lathe is the best type or lathe to use . If possible
have on hand collets 1 through 80. A d.c. motor powered by a battery charger with a 
resistive foot pedal on the a.c. line offers a good measure of safety because the motor
uses low voltage. This system also has , in most cases , higher torque. 
	A tool for cutting down lantern pinions to the proper length can be made by 
cutting a piece of round stock of brass or steel and drilling a hole through the middle
as if you are performing a repivot job. Drill the hole all the way through up to twice
the diameter of the pinions that are being replaced. PICTURE . Supply stock to fit 
through the hole with a clamp on one side. Place the old pinion in the end; bring the
stock up to the old pinion and push it up until it is even with the end of the drilled
stock; set the clamp on the end ; now there is a reference point and the new pinions
can be cut. Also the pinions can be held and ground on  the wheel.


				METALS:
	
	Brass: Brass is an alloy of copper, lead, tin, and zinc. If brass gets hot it will 
get softer according to how hot it gets. It is important to remember this when soldering
brass parts ; do not get them too hot or they will be ruined. How hot is too hot? Hot
enough to melt lead solder is ok, generally speaking. If you are going to try silver solder
be careful. much over 450 degrees F and you will probably make the part that you are trying
to fix useless. the bottom line here is : if at all possible do not solder ; use it as a 
last resort. BE ABSOLUTELY SURE THAT ALL THE FLUX IS REMOVED OR THE PART WILL BE DAMAGED,
PROBABLY BEYOND REPAIR. 
	To make brass harder , it must be struck , preferably with a smooth hammer 
while the piece that is being worked is resting on an anvil . The longer and harder it is
worked the harder it will get. For example , it is possible to make a  click spring out of
soft brass by hammering on it and shaping it. 
	Use hard steel to repivot; it is available through almost every
supplier. I recommend using drill rod to make levers and shafts; it can be hardened if
desired and is relatively easy to work with. 
	A tool for installing click springs can be made by cutting a narrow slit in the end 
of a piece of drill rod just wide enough for the spring and deep enough to hold it.
Harden the end and you  will be able to install just about any friction fit click spring. 
Remember to use a hole closing punch on the holes before installing the spring so it 
will be tight. 
	Round ended punches ; small ,medium, and large will be ;needed . Two punches
for straightening gear teeth are a must if any work with bent gear teeth is to be done
.PICTURE. The end should be hardened and the edge should be as sharp as possible.
CLEANING

	In my opinion ultrasonic cleaning machines are the best way to clean clock 
mechanisms, if it is understood how they work, and what they do to metal. If petroleum 
based cleaners are to be used , it is absolutely imperative to remember the following 
information: The brass and steel metal in clocks has microscopic holes that the oil will 
fill and hold a thin film on top. When the clock mechanisms are run through the
ultrasonic cleaner ; all the oil even the oil that is imbedded in the pores of the metal 
is removed. When the surface is re-oiled the new oil will often be soaked up and the 
result is the same as if the part had not even been oiled in the first place. Disassembly 
is a must. It is not possible , in my opinion , to properly clean a clock mechanism
without  disassembling it totally. It is best to use a cleaner and a rinse in separate  
containers preferably 2 separate cleaning machines at a minimum. The ultrasonic 
machines work by actually vibrating the liquid at about 15,000 hertz forming small 
bubbles that effectively scrub the objects in the tank clean.  
	Water based cleaners:   Often it will be necessary to use water based cleaners.
Be absolutely certain that all the moisture is removed from the mechanism before
re-assembly and if a dryer is used be aware that plastic parts will melt! I have seen 
many clocks that have been destroyed by rust. Avoid using substances that are extremely
caustic or acidic , they may do a great job of cleaning the mechanism and make look
shiny and bright , but  the steel parts will most certainly rust later and if this rust 
is not removed , the mechanism will be destroyed. 
	Another way to clean is to use a tooth pick on the pivot holes. This takes
a long time , and is very tedious, but sometimes it is the only way to get the thing 
cleaned. A small amount of cleaning solvent on the end of the tooth pick will make
it a faster operation. Twisting the toothpick slowly by hand probably is the best 
way to insure that the pick wont break off in the hole. I find it necessary to use a
magnifier to check the  Inside of  the bushing to determine when it is clean.     


				BUSHINGS: 

	Bronze bushings will outlast brass in most cases. Be sure to check  for wear
that does not show: that is , wear underneath the oil cup. Before pressing in a new
bushing be absolutely sure that the hole is re-centered. PICTURE Reamers are 
available that will make a hole just the right size for the bushing to be press-fit into 
the plate. I have always used  a micrometer to measure the pivot sizes  and it
seems to work just fine. Remember that when a bushing is pressed into the brass 
plate, the hole in the center of the bushing will be squeezed to a smaller size, Between
.001 and .002 is common. Keep this in mind when choosing the bushing size for the
pivot.Relocating a worn bushing to its true center is difficult and must be done 
carefully. Before disassembling the mechanism, after cleaning it, check each bushing
to find out how much wear has occurred. The bushings that are worn should be
marked, if necessary , and the amount and direction of wear should be noted , by 
a mark on the plate with a non-permanent marking pen with an extremely fine point. 
I have used a small round taper file to back file the bushings to their original center.
Do this by filing back as far as they have worn.Use a drill bit to open up the hole 
before using the reamer on it.  


				REPIVOTING: 

	Repivoting skills are a must. The only way to become proficient at this is 
practice; lots of practice. Accuracy to within .001in. Is absolutely necessary if
repivoting jobs in clock repair are to be done properly. With the piece in the lathe, 
perfectly centered, bring the point of the graver SLOWLY  to the center of the work as 
it is spinning. In the instant before the end of the graver contacts the end of the 
spinning stock, holding your breath is a good way to steady your touch . Of course, 
using the steady rest as a solid anchor for the graver is a must. In order to make the 
stock end true center visable; square off the end with a file as it is spinning in the 
lathe. The resulting circular pattern will appear to come to a point; the point is the 
true center of the spinning stock. If the true center is struck, there will be a cone
shaped indentation in the end of the stock. If  there is a tiny protruding dimple in 
the middle of the cone , then center has not been properly struck. You will have to start
over with a flat surface again. You must either have exceptional vision, or learn to use 
a magnifier. A sharp graver is needed. continue to practice striking center and avoid the
small dimple in the middle. When you drill the stock go slowly and use a pivot drill 
whenever possible. The hole that is drilled should be about .001in. smaller than the 
stock you intend to use. This is true for most repivoting work in clocks on straight 
shafts larger than .020in..  Use the lathe and wire chucks to install (drive in( the new
pivot.(PICTURE). It should not be necessary to 
strike the pivot end very hard to get the pivot to seat properly. If possible the hole
for the pivot should be twice as deep as the pivot is long. This is not always possible,
however. If you are drilling into a shaft that has a gear over where the pivot is located ; 
;be very careful not to drill into the gear so as to weaken it. Check this out in advance.
In order to drill hard steel properly , you will have to draw the temper on it  do the
work, and then re-temper the piece when you are done (before you install the new  
pivot(. This is the correct way to fix a bad pivot in almost all cases. Repivoting may
seem impossible when you first start ; but it will get easier with practice. There will 
indeed  be times when it may not be practical to repivot. For example : a french clock
with the pinion gear as an integral part of the shaft with a bad pivot in the opposite
ind: the shaft will be very hard steel , and it will be very difficult to strike center. 
This principal of repivoting applies to more than just repivoting. 

				SETH THOMAS CLOCKS

	The Seth Thomas clock company has made millions of clocks, many of which have 2
mainsprings , two gear trains ,and one count wheel. Most of these types of mechanism 
have a wire lock arm system which usually consists of two small shafts with wires 
attached 
to trip the strike in conjunction with the count wheel. PICTURE. The bushings for the 
lock arms are critical. They must be loose , but not too loose. Any thing over 
about.006in. oil probably cause problems; unless the shutoff wire has a  return spring. 
If the actual shutoff wire has a return spring , it may forgive some slop however ,be
careful, and be sure to check the operation of the wire very carefully. The slop in the
bushing will cause sideways movement of the arm and may be enough to disrupt the action
between the shutoff lever and the count wheel. The slot in the count wheel that the flat
wire end drops into is not very wide.  
	Another part of the strike system that is critical is the lift cam attached to 
the 
centerpost. PICTURE . This cam is almost always press-fit. It must be tight enough so
that it cannot be moved by even the strongest hand. If this cam is soldered, beware, 
this almost always means that it has either come loose , or someone didn't know 
what they were doing. The lever hooked to the count arm that works with this cam must
contact that cam at the center of both the cam and the lever. PICTURE. If the cam 
does not have a beveled edge , then the minute hand should not be turned backwards. 
If the cam has a beveled edge , then counter clockwise motion is probably an option. 
The lever will usually gave an angeled edge so that it will spring back out or the way 
of the cam when it moves counterclockwise.
	All of the levers that are hooked into the count arm axles must be absolutely
tight. They must not be able to move under normal operating conditions. It is not 
necessary to solder these parts to make them stay put. However if they gave been damaged,
as a last resort from a practical standpoint, soldering may be the only option. Remember
to use only enough solder to do the job. Again, let me stress, be absolutely certain that
all the flux is removed when the job is done before the clock is reassembled. 
	Many of these clocks have escape wheels with somewhat long fine teeth. Be 
careful , they bend very easily. The Dead Beat type of escapement is common on this
type of mechanism. Be aware of this and keep in mind that the tolerance of the bushings 
on the escape wheel and the verge are critical if the clock is to keep good time. If the 
verge is located on the front or back outside of the plate; it still must not have sloppy
bushings. (PICTURE OF TOOL TO REPAIR THESE BUSHINGS.).
	Always check for worn main wheel gear teeth, and worn pinions (wire pinions 
can be replaced of course) these two situations will cause stoppage and timekeeping 
problems. PICTURE.  Also check for bent gear teeth ;even slightly bent teeth can
cause the clock to stop.The seth Thomas Adamatine clock regulator: 1 turn is 2 min
in 24 hours. 
	The mainsprings in these clocks are of the standard .018in. by .750in. by 96in. 
american manufacture. They must be thoroughly cleaned and all the old oil must
be removed without scoring the spring. They must be unwound ;opened up entirely 
and all the surface cleaned by other than an ultrasonic cleaning machine. The ultrasonic 
can and probably should be the first cleaning step. There are in fact some movements 
that don't take the standard size spring so be sure to measure the springs carefully. A
sticky or fatigued mainspring can cause the clock to stop erratically , and or not keep
time. Problems with the strike will also be experienced; such as sequence getting off 
and or the speed or the strike varying. 
	Some of these mechanisms will have a return spring on the shutoff, and some 
will not. Care must be taken to insure that the strength of the return spring is not 
strong enough to make the clock stop. Also make sure that the surface of the trip cam is 
not rough enough to add enough friction to stop the time  gear train. The cam lift surface
must be smooth. 
	I have found that cleaning mainsprings with an abrasive substance such as
sandpaper is ok as long as the spring surface is not scratched excessively. If the
surface of the spring is scratched, then friction will be  added in direct proportion
to the extent of the scratches , quite possibly more than the old oil that was removed
by the substance in the first place. A self defeating situation at best!! Use fine steel
wool with cleaning solvent to remove the old oil. The old oil will often look like a
yellowish brown stain and can be mistaken for the color of the steel if you are not
aware of  this. Some springs do have this color; so check if the stain can be removed 
by fine steel wool and solvent, it is probably not the steel color!


				THE SETH THOMAS 124
	The seth thomas 124 is a westminster chime mechanism with mainsprings wrapped 
in barrels attached to the front plate (by rivets or screws). The gear teeth on this
mechanism  are shaped slightly different than on most older clocks. The number 2 wheel 
time , in m;y  opinion , is the achilles heel of this clock. When overhauling one of these
pay very close attention to the brass gear; specifically the gear teeth . If these teeth
are worn (picture) it will be necessary to turn the wheel over or replace it. that is it. 
This problem will have to be addressed, or the clock will not work. The clock will either
not keep time, or will stop inconsistently, or will exhibit both of these problems. Also
be prepared to turn the main wheels if the teeth are worn. The self correct lever on the 
front plate must be absolutely free to drop. Do not get any oil behind this lever , or the
mechanism will not work. The oil will keep the lever from dropping freely.and the chime 
sequence will not correct. 	
	There are 2 small washers that fit on the movement posts on the bottom. The 
purpose of these washers is to compensate for the thickness of the plate on the upper
part or the mechanism. Do not omit these washers; if they aren't there , they should be. 
They need to be the same thickness as the top plate. The shutoff lever on the inside of 
the plate will break if you try to bend it. Do not try to bend that lever; it is hard
brass. If that lever is broken , it will take a lot longer to fix than simply opening up 
the plates and moving the gears until they are in the correct position . 
	The swing on the pendulum is normally quite excessive, an arc of 2 inches in 
not uncommon. The pendulum is quite heavy (2 ¾ oz. usually). If the pendulum arc is 
not within this parameter, it is very likely that there are problems that haven't been 
discovered. On this mechanism , the depth of the gears in the time train is critical , 
partially because there is one extra gear at compared to other 8 day westminster chime 
clocks,and partially because the mainspring is not of excessive strength. The pivots on
 these clocks are not plated and the bushings tend to be prone to wear. 
	The hammers will tend to bounce on most of these mechanisms. Somewhat
 thick grease (mainspring lube, for example) will help some. Trial and error adjustment
of the hammers will also help. Most of the 124 mechanisms have a chime/silent device,
that lifts the first 4 hammers so no chime sounds but there will be gear noise, and the 
strike will still sound in most cases. 
	Be sure to check the strike trip lever that is activated by the large pin on the 
front of the chime sequence cam. It should lift the strike lock lever enough to clear the 
rack  and allow the rack to fall and the 5th wheel the rotate HALFWAY  around to the 
lock lever which should get enough travel so that the strike hammer waits long enough
to allow for the strike to sound like a separate sequence from the chime. Total 
suspension length is 3.970 inches. Another suspension was measured that was .004 inches
strong by .186 inches wide with a suspension wire diameter of .075 inches.  Total
suspension length is 3.970 inches . 
	The mainsprings on these measure : chime: .750 inches wide by 72 inches
long by .015 inches strong ; strike : .014 inches strong by .687 inches wide by 53
inches long ; time .014 inches strong by .687 inches wide by 75 inches long. 
SETH THOMAS SONORA CHIME

	This clock has two mechanisms. The one closest to the front of the clock powers
the strike and the time gear trains. It also trips the chime. The chime mechanism is 
closest to the back of the clock. The chime mechanism has a huge mainspring and mainspring 
barrell. Pay very close attention to the teeth on this barrell; if this mainspring or
barrell lets go , it will do much damage th the mechanism and possibly to someone's finger. 
	Most of these clocks are not self correcting on the chime or the strike.The 
mechanism that runs the strike and the time is very similar to the 8 day 
time and strike american
clock mechanisms. The chime usually is sounded on a row of bells mounted above
a resonating box. These clocks have a beautiful sound in my opinion. The hammer
sequence is different on these clocks than on the modern german w/c self correcting
mechanisms. 
	The time and strike mechanism is activated by the chime mechanism ,
however ,the chime mechanism is activated by the trip lever and the trip cam in the
time and strike mechanism. Be absolutely sure to check the ratchet dog system on 
the chime mechanism; I have seen many of these loose when they come in for repair. 
If one of these lets go , the results will be disastrous indeed. There is usually
a pin on the inside of the ratchet that the click spring pushes on to make the click
work. Be sure to check this pin very carefully , it must not be loose , or the 
ratchet system will fail. 
	The pendulum on these mechanisms usually will have at lease 2 inches of
swing, and the pendulum bob is one of the heavier (2 ¾ ounces typically) types. 
Before getting too far on the repair of one of these clocks . it is very wise to check 
the gear teeth on the chime mainspring barrell. If the barrell is bad , there is no point 
in doing the rest of the work until the barrell problem can be resolved. If the chime 
mechanism won't work , then neither will the strike . The hammer throw is critical
on these clocks ; it may have to be reduced if it has been tampered with . Take the
hammer =assembly out , take it apart and clean it throughly. I have frequently seen
these mechanisms bind up because of excessive hammer friction due to too much
throw or gummy oil. 
	The hammer sequence on this mechanism is different than usual. It is as
follows: looking in the back of the clock and assigning numbers to the four bells
used for the quarter hour melody starting with the bell closest to the back door 
and calling it #1 and the one next to it #2 ,Then #3 and finally #4 , not counting the 
bell used for the hour strike or course , the order for the quarter hour chime (down
the scale westminster) is ;  2 ,4 ,1 ,3 . This same sequence would also apply to the
3rd measure of the ¾ hour chime. 

TWO SPRING W/C SESSIONS 
22,23
	The sessions westminster chime mechanism with only 2 mainsprings can be
recognized by the silver colored large hammer lift assembly  on the back plate that is
quite obvious when you open the back door. This is not present on time and strike
mehanism. The assembly is spring loaded . If there is not a coil spring in the cap
on the end , there  should be! This mechanism has 2 racks and 2 snails. The front rack
and snail controls the hour count, the rack and snail behind these control the quarter
hour chime. the two racks work together , in other words they both always drop, and
the gathering pallet cam picks both of them up together. They are offset from each
other, that is they drop to different levels. The snail for the hour has 12 levels; 
the one for the quarter hour has four levels. Behind the hammer lift assembly on the back
plate is a fixed indexing pin permanently attached to the plate; it should not move,
or be moved unless someone has tampered with it. the hammer lift assembly has a
hole in it that snaps onto the indexing pin at the end of the hour chime sequence ,
allowing the  hour count to finish the remaining gear travel allowed for by the hour 
strike rack action.
		The power to run the chime and strike is transfered through the
long shaft that runs through the hammer lift assembly.The cap on the back end of
the hammer lift assembly has a pin that catches either all the discs in the hammer 
assembly , or just the hour strike disc depending on the position of the assembly 
as determined by the fixed pin on the outside for the back plate. 
	 To set these mechanisms up after rebushing them , first set up the snails 
and racks on the front plate to the 12 o'clock position with the trip cam on the inside
of the plate with the high side having just released the trip lever. The quarter hour 
snail should be set so the corresponding rack drops to the deepest spot. Set the hour 
snail to the 12 o'clock position of course. The hour snail has a set screw on it so when
the snails are set on the front very carefully tighten that setscrew; be absolutely 
certain nothing moves when you do (except the set screw , of course!) . Be absolutely 
certain that the hour tube still has endshake after this cam is secured. Now move 
your attention to the back plate. There is a cam   friction fit on the back of the 
centerpost that needs to push the hammer lift assembly out (via the swivel lever 
on the back plate) far enough to clear the indexing pin so the hammer lift assembly
is in position to lift the hammers that will sound the quarter hour chime after the trip 
lever releases. On the hour this cam must just be starting to lift the swivel lever in
order for the hammer lift assembly to be in the correct position when the quarter
hour chime starts. This mechanism can take as long a 1 and a quarter hours to self 
correct. 
	There is an idler gear on the front that meshes with the gear on the quarter hour
snail. This gear is often friction fit on . It should be absolutely tight. It must not 
move or the clock will never work. What usually happens if this gear is too loose is that 
the clock will mysteriously keep getting out of sequence. It needs to turn of course , but 
it must be tight on the shaft. this idler gear , as you will probably notice turns the
quarter hour snail.
	There are usually 2 setscrews on the cap on the back of the hammer lift 
assembly; be sure to loosen these when you set the chime sequence at the hour. 
There is not a lot of spin on the governor before the first hammer picks up on this 
clock. The  sequence of the hammers is the 1,,2,3,4  down the scale at quarter after 
similar to the modern german w.c mechanisms. 
FRENCH CLOCKS: 

	Most french clocks are fine examples of extremely well made precision
instruments. They usually have tapered pivots made of very hard steel. In fact , almost 
all of the steel in a typical french clock is very hard and all the pivots are highly 
polished. The mainspring barrells in a french clock are not interchangeable; also the
arbors must not be switched ; they will not fit ; they are custom fit to the barrell. 
The arbors are tapered and this should not be changed.When rebushing these clocks ;
do not change the pivots, leave them tapered; and ream the bushings so that they fit
the tapered pivots. 
	The dials on most french clocks are ceramic and the numbers are fired on
in other words , the dials are painted , then fired. The numbers that are fired on will
not come off. However. some french clocks have artwork or printing that was put
on after the dial was made. BE EXTREMELY CAREFUL AND NEVER TOUCH 
THE NAMES THAT ARE ON THESE DIALS. THEY WILL EASILY RUB OFF 
WITH THE SLIGHTEST TOUCH. 
	French clocks that have a rack and snail system must have the rack set
exactly at the apex of the 12 o'clock position. PICTURE. If they are not set this 
way , they will be off at 12, 9or 1 and will bind up on the strike. The snails are 
usually smooth , but often it will be possible to see where the rack has been dropping
by looking for little indentations where the rack has been hitting for many years. 
	Many french clocks have long straps that hold the mechanism in the 
large hole in the front by fastening through the back to the door that is on the back.
There are usually two holes in the side of the back door that the screws fit through 
to fasten to the straps . Be careful : do not tighten them too tight ; particularly if 
the case is ceramic. The case may crack. Also the straps may have slightly worn 
threads and tightening them too tight will strip the threads , and then you will have a 
major problem .On the french clocks with an alarm; do not turn the alarm hand set
when the alarm is sounding.When reassembling a french carriage clock use tape to 
hold the  door in place whine the rest of the clock is being assembled. To tighten a
french clock hammer ; unscrew the hammer 1 turn and carefully punch inside near 
the arbor hole then retighten the hammer; do not remove the hammer to punch, the
hole will close too tightly.
FRENCH CLOCKS

	Most french clocks facilitate the lifting of the hammers (or hammer as the case 
may be ) by means of pins on the #3 wheel in the strike train. The setting of these pins
as they relate to the amount of hammer lift and gear travel before the hammer is picked
up  can be frustrating to say the least. What  can be done is to assemble the clock and 
observe where the hammer drops as the strike gear train is moved slowly by hand
(  not paying any attention to the shutoff pin on the upper wheel ( unless of course
it is shutting off in exactly the correct position); then make note of ;or mark ;the
exact tooth on the 3rd wheel that is at a predetermined reference point. Now ,  move the 
gear train ahead till it shuts off ,  lift the plates carefully and separate the 3rd 
wheel and the 4th wheel just enough to move the 3rd wheel so the tooth that was marked 
s back exactly at its reference point ;  without letting any other of the gears shift
position. This works best with the type of mechanism that has a removable plate 
for the 3rd wheel , but will work with with solid plates too unless the pivot on the
3rd wheel is excessively long. 
	Some of the small time only carriage clocks have a centerpost that has a
square arbor through the back plate that is for setting the hands. There will usually 
be an arrow to indicate which way to turn the post. Watch the hour tube on these .
It will often bind up and the clock will appear to loose power and will usually stop. 
Often the bushing on the hour tube will have old oil that will not come out with 
normal cleaning routines. Keep in mind that a small amount of friction here will stop 
the clock.

			European mechanism (WEIGHT DRIVE)
	The american floor clock with automatic chime change changes every hour on 
the hour, be sure the hammer lift cam moves before the chime trips. At ¼ after it 
starts a different melody.
24,25	
	These mechanisms are designed with close tolerances as far as power reserve 
is concerned , and they are very sensitive to wear and excess friction of any kind. 
The hammer support shaft on these mechanisms is critical. Too much oil inside the 
sleeves on the hammer bases will , in a short period of time ,  thicken up and cause the 
hammers to bind up and this in turn will cause the chime to stall. The amount of power 
supplied by the weights designed for this mechanism is enough , but only enough 
to run the device. This is true particularly in the chime gear train. Pay close attention 
to the amount of throw the hammers have (that is; the height they are lifted to before
they strike the gong rods.)  If you are having trouble with the chime stalling ; and
you have checked EVERYTHING ,and I mean everything , except the hammer
throw ; then try reducing the throw slightly , evenly across all the hammers ,
keeping in mind that if the throw is reduced too much , the volume will be reduced 
too much.
	Be sure to check the pulleys .If they are gummed up or worn , they will
drastically reduce the amount of power available to run the gear trains to which they 
are attached.When one of these mechanisms is in for service , it is absolutely
necessary to disassemble and clean the pulleys. If a pulley is worn enough so that 
the edge of the pulley rubs against the inside of the holder , the pulley must either 
be rebushed or replaced. 
	Many of the newer versions of this mechanism have winding stops on
the winding arbors. This system usually consists of two round toothed gears on
the outside of the front plate at the winding arbor area of all three gear trains.
PICTURE.  There is a very simple way to deal with these little puzzles. Wind
the mechanism fully before you disassemble it ,then measure the length of cable 
left over after removing the pulleys. Make careful note of the exact position of both 
cogs at  each of the three locations   BEFORE THEY ARE REMOVED. Be sure to
put the cogs back on the same arbor that they are removed from in the same 
quadrant. PICTURE.  After the mechanism is reassembled and adjusted and lubricated
install the cables and wind them up so exactly the same length is left over that you 
had when the cable end was measured before the mechanism was disassembled. If 
the winding stop gears were marked correctly , they will now be able to be reinstalled 
so that the winding will stop in the same place as it was before the mechanism 
was serviced.In the newer kieningers the chime will bind if there is even a slightest 
burr on the shutoff cam.  


					HERSCHEDE:

	Most of the Herschede 9 Tube and 5 Tube grandfather clock mechanisms 
are very will built. The majority of the problems on these clocks are created by well 
meaning uniformed repair persons. The two racks and snails are the areas to look
first for problems . PICTURE. When the rack hook is lifted on either side (chime or
strike) ; the rack should move neither up or down; it should simply stay put as
hough nothing were happening until the hook releases it. If the angle is disturbed 
on either the rack or the rack hook, then there will be a problem to the extent as to
how much the rack moves when the hook is moved up or down  slowly. Be sure to 
check the hub on both sides of both racks ; the angle is critical and they must be
absolutely tight. These rack problems most likely start with wear on the gathering 
pallet arbor bushing. Take the time to check the operation of the gathering pallets
EXTENSIVELY  before  final assembly . PICTURE. Be sure to check the tightness 
of the gathering pallets on their square shafts before you reassemble the mechanism.  
They must be very tight on the shaft or they will work themselves loose over time.
If they are not tight  , make them tight or replace them if necessary . A SMALL
amount of silver solder on the square shaft will tighten them up. remove ALL THE 
SOLDERING FLUX  WHEN YOU ARE DONE. Do not use soft solder it will not 
hold it shape well enough. 
	Be sure to mark the centerpost assembly so it goes back together exactly t
he same way it came apart. (Some times the hour tube support is not symmetrical 
and the center post will bind.) The same screw in the same hole and the same corner
is the same place.
	Pivot polishing is critical on this mechanism especially. Many of these 
mechanisms have a plating on most all the pivots. Be sure to completely disassemble
the main wheels and polish the area where they ride on the arbor behind the cupped 
tension washer. If this area is not polished , the winding process will soon cause it it 
bind up. Plenty of lubrication is needed here. I have heard some say why polish in
that area, you are just causing that problem; everything is fine until the plating is
removed. That is all well and good if the plating in fact has not broken down. My 
opinion is this : do the job once so that it will work , or do the job once so that it
might work , and then do it again so that it will work.
	The moon dial on this clock will stop it if the detent spring is too tight. Be
sure to check the spring to confirm that it is just tight enough to allow the dial to
ratchet ahead and hold  but no tighter. 
	Always check the impulse post on the pendulum. It must be tight. If it is
loose at all the clock will not run., Be sure that there are no rough spots on the post 
or the impulse arm where the post rides on it.
	Be aware that if the hammer lift drum is submerged in the cleaning liquid, it 
es very likely that a substantial amount or the cleaner will get inside the drum and
later leak and run all over the drum and its adjacent parts. Either clean this outside 
of the liquid by some other method or drill (carefully) holes in the ends of the drum
so the liquid can drain out immediately.  The winding key on the 9 tube clocks is a
number 13 or 14 depending on how much wear there is on  the arbor. 





	Very carefully check the cords that the bells hang by and the hammer 
lift strings to be sure they aren't decayed. Also check the hammer pads and change 
them if they have worn through.
	The drive gear system that turns the hammer lift drum needs to have some
play in the gear depthing, it must not be tight. About 30% of the way to the gear teeth 
not meshing at all will allow it to work. The beveled gears are particularly critical. 
	The pulleys must be taken apart, cleaned and checked. The shafts that the 
pulleys ride on ate pitted or scored in about 90% of the clocks that come in for a 
complete overhaul.The shafts must be polished thoroughly and the pulleys rebushed
if they are loose or worn. 
	Always check the cables ; specifically the ends that are inside the main
wheel drums. If only the ends are bad, then simply retie the knot in the end . This
is a corner you can cut safely  IF THE REST OF THE CABLE IS OK. If any breaks 
or worn spots are found on the brass cable  REPLACE IT.     
			

			TELECHRON:
	This is a type of electric clock that works on 110 volt 60 cycle electric
 current. There are quite a number of different types of  Telechron electric clocks 
but only a few will be discussed here. The 2 most common problems with the
telechrons are the rotors (including the coil) and the actual mechanical part of the 
clock. It has been my experience  that if the coil is bad, it is usually because of a 
power surge , improper handling , or just plain age.  
	The rotors that have a flat side on the shaft are usually the same as far
as the gear ratio and external size as those
that have a round shaft. Check the rpm rating , the size , the direction of rotation , 
and the diameter of to shaft. If the only difference is the flat side on the shaft then 
either one will work. Of course you must file a flat side if all you can get is one with
a round shaft. Always check the power cord if it is worn anywhere replace it.
Be very careful where the cord enters the coil it will break very easily. 
	When the sequence is set , be sure that the trip pins on the centerpost are at 
the hour position. If this is not done , the chime and strike will not release at the 
correct time and the gear train will bind up or the tempo of the chime-vs-strike
will not sound pleasant. 	
	It is normal for the coil to heat up slightly ;  it should not get too hot to 
touch ; if it does , something is wrong. More than likely the coil is shorted. This can
be a fire hazard so be careful and be sure to check them out carefully. Some 
alternating current hum is normal however it shouldn't be too noticeable. Sometimes the
rotors are noisy ; it is gear noise that causes this. Don't confuse this with hum. 
Sometimes there will be both hum and gear noise. Replacement rotors can usually be ordered 
from most clock repair supply houses. These rotors are becoming much harder to find.
As of the writing of this journal some of them are no longer available. The old rotors
were made of copper and were soldered together. They can be taken apart and repaired. 
Inside the capsule is a tiny ac induction motor that powers a reduction gear train. 
They are oil filled so I would not recommend opening them  using any kind of heat.
I have cut them open by chucking them up in a lathe and CAREFULLY cutting a groove 
in the top part of the capsule. If you look closely you can see where they have been
soldered at the factory. The newer rotors can be cut open also. They are made of aluminum.
The gears inside are plastic and so are some of the bushings.    
			
			SCHATZ

	The schatz ships bell clock will have either a pin lever or jeweled lever escape 
unit.The older models usually have a pin lever escape unit. It is not an accurate 
timekeeper. Anticipate problems with these types. The cups that the balance wheel ride on 
usually wear unless they have jewels in them. The fork will often be loose and the pins
will often be worn. Be prepared to jewel or rebush the pivot holes in these balance units. 
Unless you are willing to jewel the escape wheel and the verge; and possibly replace
the pins in the pallet, and either reshape the balance wheel pivots or replace the center
staff (which may mean making one) ; and either repair or replace the pivot bushing 
caps for the balance wheel (again may mean making them) stay away from these types. 
The newer units will usually have a jeweled platform escape unit. They are quite accurate
and much more dependable. If they are jeweled , they will usually only need careful 
cleaning and timekeeping adjustment. 
	The catch on the half-hour must pop up in time to catch the hammer end but 
not too soon or to will miss it. The shutoff cam must have just let the shutoff drop after
the second hammer drops. Make sure the large cam on the centerpost is in the up
position on the hour trip position . PICTURE. GOLDEN HOUR: 
	

	The golden hour clock is the only series in the Jefferson electric that 
motors are available for now. When the motor is replaced, the dial glass and gear 
and gear ring and housing should be cleaned. Some information indicates no oil should
be used on the dial gear ring and housing, and some says oil is ok. My experience
has taught me that  if much more than a very thin film of oil  is applied  problems 
will occur. 
	The motor should be mounted so as to leave some play in the gears , 
but not too much. Bring the gears together  as closely as possible and  then separate 
them by about .020in. plus or minus .004in..  Do not allow too much play in the gears
because they will lock up when the teeth hit on the gear tooth ends. Do not ,on the 
other hand, allow the gear teeth to bottom out on each other . 
	 Be sure to check the cord when the motor is replaced. If the cord is bad , 
replace it. Pay particular attention to the plug and the strain relier insulator at the 
back of the case; these are the most common areas of problems. 
		


			QUAIL CUCKOO CLOCKS: 

	Quail cuckoos are quite involved and can be very challenging repair items. They
contain of course 3 bellows and usually have the strike controlled by count wheels. The
quail gear train usually trips the cuckoo train.The quail is tripped at the quarter hrs.
Once at quarter after , twice at half past, three times at quarter to the hour , and four
times at the hour and then the cuckoo is released and and allowed to count the hour. 
	Always check for worn pinions on these clocks . They will have to be replaced
if they are worn., That is it ; the clock will not work dependably if they are not fixed. 
Also check for worn ratchets; this is a common problem on the older cuckoos. 
	The shutoff cams in the quail and cuckoo gear trains can be quite difficult to
set. They must be set st they they don't lift the shutoff lever too high to cause it to
jump over the stop pin, but enough so that they still shut off. Do not try to bend the 
shutoff lever too far; it is usually very hard brass and will break quite easily. 
	The brass in the plates of these clocks is usually very high quality (IE: very 
hard and wears well ) so only rebush them with bronze bushings and if the bushing 
has marginal wear ; it is best to leave it just a tiny bit on the loose side. Be very
cautious of the bushings that are near to the edge of the plate ; the edge of the plate
is very easily broken if a bushing of too large a diameter is used. If you are not sure ; 
use the smallest bushing that can be drilled out to fit the pivot. It would be well to 
check for this type of situation before toy get too far into the repair job. 
	The count  wheel is critical to the proper operation or the bird action. The
shutoff lever must bot be allowed to bounce at all, or the bird will flop in and out 
of the little door. The lever must ride solidly on the count wheel without making it 
bind. Be sure the count wheel is mounted securely. The looser the count wheel the 
QUAIL CUCKOO CLOCKS:


more chance of failure. Do not, however, make the count wheel so that it puts even 
the slightest undue pressure on the gear train's ability to move. 
	The hands on these old cuckoos are brittle and will break very easily. It is 
best to look for cracks or places where the hands have been glued before you even 
start the repair. Many of the hands on these old clocks are made of ivory and are 
impossible to replace. Warn the owner of this ahead of time if it is practical. 
			
		CHELSEA CLOCKS , ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS: 

	The centerpost on some chelsea ships bell clocks comes apart at the center.
It only goes on one way ; it will be crooked if it is put on 180degrees off. Set the time
gear train up first and fasten the middle plate. Then set up the strike. Keep in mind
that the mainspring barrells are reversed ; so be sure to make a note somewhere as
to which way the mainsprings hook. The self correcting and the hour vs half hour
levers should not have to be filed or otherwise bent unless someone has altered 
them. Chelsea clocks are very well made and do not need excessive adjustments
unless tampered with. If it is necessary to rebush a chelsea ships clock , be sure
to support the bushing from the bottom as you may inadvertently push it out in 
the process of installing a new bushing.
DUTCH CLOCKS:

	If you are going to work on dutch clocks it will be particularly helpful to 
have a place to hang them where it will be easy to access the suspension and the
impulse arm as these clocks can be very difficult to put in beat. The chain retainers
that prevent the chains from slipping inside the case are usually an the weight 
end. The hands are very thick and the hub in the minute hand usually will not slip: 
so if the centerpost strike strike trip cam has been removed; be absolutely
certain to
check the trip position before the cam is driven back on the centerpost. If this is
not checked there will be a major problem in that  the minute hand trip position 
will be off at the final stage of the repair; and you will have to either destroy the
minute hand or partially disassemble the thing just to get the minute hand to line
up at the hour and half-hour trip. Be aware that there are 1 day and 8 day models. 
If the chain does not fit correctly IE: if the links are too large , the chain may climb 
up on the sprocket teeth. The side that has no weight will not be able to hold the
chain tight and this will allow for the chain to climb the sprocket teeth which will 
result in the clock stopping mysteriously occasionally. When the chain and
mechanism are mounted in the case , it is almost impossible to see whether or 
not the chain is bound up. When the clock is moved to inspect the mechanism ,
the chain slips back down to the correct position before you can see it and the 
clock will run fine when it is hung back up on the wall. You will never know that
the chain bound up , or exactly why the clock stopped. 

	
				VIENNA REGULATORS: 

	 These clocks are definitely not user friendly. They are incredibly sensitive; 
hardly have any swing (1in. is normal) and will not run if they are even slightly out of
beat. The 
beat is next to impossible to set ; the cables will always tangle, and the cases usually are
falling apart. They are beautiful clocks , however , and once set up by someone who 
knows how , they will run just fine and keep good time. 
	The verge will have worn pallet faces quite often. there are several ways to deal 
with this. Some times it will be possible to offset the escape wheel so that the teeth are
working on the part of the pallet face that hasn 't worn yet. do this by bushing both
sides of the wheel and offset the bushings slightly. If this has already been done, and 
the pallet faces are worn in both places ; the pallet faces can be turned upside down 
and reversed if they are held in place by screws. If it is a solid one piece verge , it will 
be necessary to make a new one or fill in the worn spots. I have done this with silver
solder. This is the least desirable way to get the job done. Perhaps a better way is to
file down the verge faces past the wear point , being absolutely certain to maintain the
same angle in the faces , then using silver solder , attach new hard steel faces with a
thickness that will give the net result of being the same distance between faces as 
before the wear took place. Either way will work, providing all the flux is removed 
when the job is done. Be sure to polish the pallet faces when you are done. Check to 
be sure that the verge is tight on the shaft. Sometimes the impulse arm will be threaded 
on at the top ; and if it is , there is a good chance that it will be soldered. I have seen 
this many times. I remove the solder and tighten it up by threading it back on until it
is secure (tight enough to hold it in beat , but loose enough to keep from bending the
escape wheel teeth if the pendulum is swung too far. ) If solder is found on the verge 
clutch like this ; be prepared to find some bent escape wheel teeth. 
	The impulse pin on the bottom of the impulse arm usually has a threaded 
adjustment system on it. Always check that pin , there is a good chance it will be loose.
The clock will not run if that pin is loose , even slightly loose. Disassemble that 
adjustment system , if need be, and tighten that pin ; it will save hours of frustration. 
	Many of the vienna regulators have slightly tapered pivots; leave them that
way; and if you rebush , make sure the hole in the new bushing is tapered to match. 
Most of these are very precision mechanisms they aren't very forgiving. The pivots
are for the most part very hard steel and will break very easily. 
	Check to see if there is a cable/pulley stop on the bottom of the mechanism. 
If there is , make sure the pulleys wind into them properly before you reinstall the 
mechanism. When the mechanism is apart , be sure to check the cables inside the drums  
to be sure there are no bad ends there. Check the pendulum clearance with the weights 
even with the pendulum bob, set the beat and let the clock run for a while to be sure
the weights  and pendulum and gong will clear each other. Be sure to check the 
pulleys to determine if they are worn . They must be rebushed if they are worn.The 
mechanism in a vienna regulator can't be leaning forward or the cable will jump off 
the main wheel drum.  


			PROBLEMS WITH EUROPEAN MECHANISMS	

	The strike lift liver that is lifted by the star wheel quite often will get a
groove 
worn in it if the edges of the star wheel are the least bit rough. The resulting common 
complaint is that the strike doesn't work all the time. The edges of the star wheel must 
be polished or the problem will come back in a year or two. 
	In the mid-seventies there were some popular european mechanisms
made that had the 3rd wheel
time out of round. If you are in the repair business, you very likely will run into one 
of these at some point in time. They will bind up intermittently , or will just stop and
loose power, If you are working on a popular european mechanism and have this problem ,
check the center wheel. Remove the clutch spring and spin the wheel on the shaft ; if 
it is out of round it may have to be replaced. 
	The gear ratio in the popular european mechanism movements has had some problems
over the years. Once in a while there will appear a clock with a popular european mechanism
movement that just does not keep time. The problem is usually in the #3 and #4 wheels.
There were some 34cm wheels that got mixed up with 55cm pinions. The way they changed the 
pendulum length was to change the gears. the plates were designed to allow changing
of gear ratios without changing the position of the pivot holes.
	Whenever you are working on a popular european mechanism, be sure to check the 
tightness of
the click rivets while the mechanism is apart. it is much easier to tighten them up 
when they are apart that when they are together.Check the ratchet wheels. If they 
are chrome colored they are probably stamped, and have relatively poor teeth
.Replace them if possible . The newer ratchet wheels have milled teeth. 
	If a mainspring lets go , check the arbor where it locks in with the arbor
sleeve . The groove in the arbor will often have a slightly bulged spot where the
tab inside the arbor sleeve gouged it at the impact of the spring letting go. The   
arbor may act as if it is stuck in the arbor sleeve (for no obvious reason) It very will 
may be this little bulge that is holding it. Usually this bulge can be filed  off and the 
arbor will still function .
	Over the years popular european mechanism has had trouble with set mainsprings.
 If there is a
problem with slow chime , and it seems as though all possibilities have been 
considered, try replacing  the mainspring.
THE HERMLE 3351-851SSK
	This mechanism is very similar to the generic popular european mechanism , except

 that it strikes
on the quarters and does not play the westminster tune:1 at quarter after , 2 at half
past, 3 at quarter to the hour; and 4 on the hour then  counts the hour. The quarter
hour gear train has a different gear system than the standard chime train. The fan is
a chime blade with a strike pinion gear (7 leaf pinion). The number 5 wheel uses a 
strike brass gear mounted on a chime pinion shaft (8 leaf pinion). Be aware of this
difference or there will be much trouble for you if you try to change the wheels in
the chime train. 
	Sometimes the popular european mechanisms have a problem with jamming up on the 
lift i.e. ; on the 
quarter hour. This can be caused by any number of things; one of the most common is 
that the chime is releasing too soon and the warning pin on the warning wheel gets stuck 
on the edge of the warning lever. This will stop the clock  and of course will cause the
chime and the strike to stop operating. One way to correct this is to carefully bend the
strike trip/lock lever down in the middle( above the centerpost trip cam) so it rests
higher approx. .050in. allowing more lift before release , which allows the warning 
lever face to be up in position far enough to catch the warning pin without getting 
stuck on the edge of the pin. Also check the stop pin on the chime shutoff cam to
be sure its angle is at least 90 degrees to the shutoff  working face. These two 
surfaces should not bind up on each other ; and will if the angle is over 90 degrees . 
If it is under 90 degrees the lever will slip off the pin face too soon and the clock 
will jam up no matter how much lift the lever has before the gear train releases.  
CUCKOO CLOCK SUSPENSIONS 

	Most cuckoo clocks do not have suspension springs. They depend on 
gravity and the power in the gear train to make the pendulum move. They do , 
however gave a suspension. It consists of 2 loops and one hook. The hook is on the 
end of the suspension rod. Always check this system. The loops get grooves worn 
in them and this is enough to stop the clock.Also check the top loop on the 
suspension post to be sure they are not loose. The clock will stop if either one of 
these are loose. They must be tight, absolutely tight. If the post is threaded in the 
threads can be tightened by closing the hole in the plate slightly with a hale closing 
punch. This will adequately tighten the suspension , providing the hole is not closed
too tightly. 
These loops in my opinion are best served by light oiling. Light meaning very 
small amounts of oil , and a very light weight oil. Only enough oil to cover the friction 
points with a thin film of oil should be used. 
SUSPENSION SPRINGS

	Suspension springs are critical : Too thick and the clock won't run ; too thin 
and the clock won't  keep time. Generally speaking , a thinner suspension 
spring will make a clock run slower ( because a thinner spring allows the
pend to swing farther and that makes more
time between ticks which makes the clock run slower ) .A thicker (stronger ) spring will 
make the clock faster ; but be cautioned ; too strong a spring will stop the clock. One
or two thousandths of an inch stronger is about all that will be tolerated in most cases. 
	The suspension post that holds the suspension spring must be absolutely 
tight in the bridge. On clocks that have regulators that affect suspension length by 
either physically or effectively changing the length , the arm that affects the
suspension spring must have only a minimum amount of play ---- only enough 
to allow freedom of movement with the pendulum attached. If these conditions
are not met , timekeeping will be erratic ; and in some cases , unpredictable stoppages 
will occur because power is absorbed by the play in the suspension spring. Cutting susp. 
spring stock ; it will curve , however it will straighten out if you grind off the edge 
of the cut spring. 


			MUSIC MECHANISMS 

	Most of the music mechanisms you will find will be in cuckoo clocks. They
will usually be weight drive. watch for worn governor assemblies, worn bushings on
the player drum assembly, and missing or ineffective dampers on the sounding fingers.
the governor assemblies that have plastic worm drive gears often have cracked gears; 
and will make a clicking sound as tha cracked part of the gear passes the worm gear. 
these must be replaced once the gear cracks ;l i know of no way to fix the plastic gears. 
	An irritating squeaking noise as the music plays is often caused by bad or
missing dampers on the music sounding fingers, to fix this simply glue
new tiny plastic pieces on
the inside bottom  if the fingers  the squeak can also be caused by loose hardware in the
clock  anywhere. Check very carefully for loose screws or wood parts. 
	The governor assemblies can be rebushed if they aren't worn too badly, and
this is preferable , because the original tune can then be saved. There are some 
replacement governor assemblies available, but quite ofter the correct gear ratios are
not included. Also, it is possible to rebush the player drum assembly. Use the appropriate 
reamer and very carefully, by hand , open the holes on the fame and press the bushing 
in with a pair or flat parallel jawed pliers. Make sure the bushing fits the shaft before 
it is pressed in.
	DO NOT EVER PUT ONE OF THESE IN AN ULTRASONIC  CLEANING
 MACHINE , THE DAMPERS WILL E BOILED OFF AND IT WILL BE RUINED. 
	There are music mechanisms that have only the tune part separate , and the gear 
train is in the main mechanism. The usually have large vertically mounted governors,
with adjustable fan blades . Watch out for these ; if the worm gear has worn teeth , it
will never work correctly . On music cuckoos , if the return spring on the side mount 
music mechanism it too tight; the entire time/strike mechanism will bind up and stop. 
HAMBURG -AMERICAN CLOCK COMPANY 

	Re:	the behive style case named the celebrate . This model has 2
jewels in the escape wheel. The hammer sequence is as follows: 3, 4 , 2 , 1. for the
westminster on the quarter hour. The longest rod being referred to as #1, and this rod
being the closest to the back plate of the mechanism. 

	As for the regulation : 1 turn is about 1 minute per day . Turn the regulator to
the right to make the clock run faster and of course to the left to make the clock run 
slower.  The movement number on this clock is 865. The manufacturer is 
Hamburg-Amerikansche Uhrenfabrick. 

			URGOS 9 TUBE CABLE DRIVE FLOOR CLOCK

	This mechanism is nothing like the Herschede 9 tube clock. Except for the 
differential like gear system on the chime side the rest of the mechanism is like the 
standard rod chime cable drive urgos mechanism. The beveled gear system that drives
 the chime must not be tight and the drive shaft that passes through the center of the 
hammer lift drum must have the gear on its end PERFECTLY centered in the idler/drive 
gears that mesh with the power train and the sequenceing train . Do not forget the 
washers that belong on the end of the shafts in the  transmission  assembly, they are
critical to the centering of the drive gear assembly. Set the chime lock / trip pin on
the warning wheel at the 3 o'clock position EXACTLY  , otherwise there will not be 
enough governor spin before the first hammer picks up. Be absolutely certain that the 
lock position is set accurately , because to change it after the mechanism is together 
will mean much wasted time in much disassembly  because the wheel is buried
in the chime hammer assembly and is not readably accessable. Install the tubes
with the weights OFF otherwise they may easily be scratched. Another common 
problem is the mechanism jamming up because the dial causes the plates of the 
movement to twist slightly when the mount bolts are tightened.Be sure to check for
plenty of slack in the mounting procedure so as to not cause mysterious sudden stoppages.  


			Regulation:  
popular european mechanism balance wheel new style : with large hairspring and 
threaded timekeeping adjustment:  the small style found on the 130-070 regulates
faster by turning the adjustment screw clockwise. The larger balance wheel
(found on the 050 mechanism) regulates opposite: that is it will run faster by 
turning the adjustment screw counterclockwise. 


			TOOTH STRAIGHTENING:

	Bent teeth can be straightened if they haven't been bent so far so as to 
crack when they are driven back k into position. Check with a magnifier at the base
of the teeth that have damaged . If there is no visible start of a fracture line 
then they  will probably straighten without breaking. One or two teeth can be
straightened  without much consequence on most spring barrells. The bigger the barrell
the more risk involved . #2 and #3 wheels are less critical, obviously because
less power is involved.
After the tooth is straightened , be sure to smooth the rough edges , taking 
care to keep the original tooth shape as much as possible. Reinstall the gear in the
mechanism with the gear on the top and the gear on the bottom and carefully check
to determine if the gear train operates smoothly. This is a last resort fix: sometimes
it works; and sometimes it doesn't . If a gear can't be cut ans a replacement can't
be found then the teeth must be straightened or replaced if the mechanism is to work. 
GEARS:

	The gears found in most clocks differ in several ways from other gears. 
Usually the main wheel , 2nd wheel , and third wheels are part of a slow moving gear 
train in time and strike and chime gear trains. The time train , particularly , is slow 
moving all the way through the gear train. These gear trains work in an opposite 
fashion from the gears; say; in an automobile. In a clock there are gears driving pinions
in a slow moving situation. In other situations there are pinions driving gears in a 
speed reduction situation and gaining power as the energy is transfered through the
gears. In a clock , power is lost as the energy is transfered, Because of this , the tooth 
design is cycloidal instead of involute. The gears are almost always brass and the 
pinions steel because the brass is softer than the steel and will not wear out the 
smaller pinions because there are many more teeth on the gear. In practice what 
actually happens is exactly what should by design the pinion teeth and the brass
teeth both wear at the same rate if oil is kept out of the gear teeth. If , however , the
gear teeth are oiled they will destroy them selves , Looking at the illustrations you 
will see that the involute tooth is stronger, but the cycloid is smoother and offers 
less resistance to movement. 
Arbor Removal:
33,34
	Some clocks have removable arbors in the mainspring barrells , and some
don't . Of the removeable arbors , there are a number of different kinds with different
methods of removal. Some have a square top that fist in a square hole in the arbor
sleeve. These have a weak point right below the key end and above the sleeve end.
They will break there. 
	A less common type has a small pin that fits in a slot inside the arbor sleeve 
and works against a flat spot in the arbor sleeve. They must be reinstalled with this
pin setting on the flat spot. If the pin needs to be replaced be sure to use hard steel. 
	The type used in the popular european mechanism mechanism is the most common in 
the modern type of mechanism. It has a slot in the arbor sleeve that must fit in a small
protrusion on the inside of the arbor sleeve. On these types if the mainspring has ever 
let go there may be a bulge in tha slot that will make it difficult to remove the arbor.
By all means check this and file it down before you reinstall the arbor in the sleeve.
	On all removeable arbors keep in mind that the oil ghat gets inside them can
make it seem as though they are not removeable if it gums up over the years. Use a
brass ended punch on the back side of the arbor to remove stubborn pieces or th 
check to determine if they are indeed of the removable type. BE EXTREMELY 
CAREFUL SO AS NOT TO MUSHROOM THE END OF THE ARBOR. 



			Pinion Replacement:

	Quite often it will be necessary to install new pinions in clocks with 
lantern gear or roller pinions. In most cases , it will be possible to do with a 
minimum of effort. The best wire to use is pivot wire (hard steel). Be sure to smooth
the end where the cut is before you install the new wire. Before you remove the
end of the pinion holder , taper the shaft with emery paper to .0008in. plus or 
minus ,00005in. to allow the end to slide off easily once it is broken loose. The 
mark that the tapering makes will also let you know where to reposition the 
end when it is reinstalled. Be sure to SLIGHTLY close the hole in the end so 
it will be TIGHT  when it is driven into place. If the holes in the holder for the 
pinions have lost their ability to keep the wires in DO NOT SOLDER THEM.  
Simply install a washer over the tip held on by a bushing friction fit on the shaft.  
	
	When the end is driven back on , it may be difficult to keep the pinions 
lined up. Use grease to hold them in place after the end is as close as possible
without actually contacting the pinions. After the work is done be absolutely 
sure to remove all the grease before the clock is reassembled.
	
	Sometimes it will be almost impossible to extract the end of a broken 
pinion, particularly if the pinion gear happens to be part of the centerpost; some 
of them are one piece . Use a magnetized screwdriver to remove the end; this
has worked for me several times. If the centerpost gear has a one piece pinion, 
and it needs repair, open the holes on the top and remove the bad wires through
the holes then use the washer method to hold the new pinion wires in.
Return Springs: 
	On w/c clocks with strike shutoffs on the front plate with pin on the 
shutoff lever instead of flat side, a return spring will often be essential. 

				
			CALENDAR CLOCKS:

	A very important word about calendar clocks. DO NOT EVER OIL
 THE CALENDAR MECHANISM;EVER. YOU WILL RUIN THE MECHANISM 
IF YOU DO. They work on gravity power and they do not need oil! This applies to 
double dial types old and new. The types that have the calendar on the main dial 
are a different story. They can be oiled but don't need oil particularly; however if
there is a separate mechanism, be careful, if it works with a lever and depends 
on gravity to work don't oil it. 


			CLOCKS WITH STEEL PLATES:

	There have been a number of clocks made that have steel plates instead of
brass. Some of them have brass bushings installed and some of them don't. If you 
are using special reamers ; do not try to use them to ream out the steel,they will be 
destroyed by the hard steel : it will dull them immediately. The brass bushings that 
are factory installed will push out if you don't have something backing it up when 
he new bushing is pressed into the larger factory bushing. Some plates are brass plated 
steel. Be sure to check the plates with a magnet before reaming.


			SYMPATHETIC VIBRATION: 

	This is a phenomena that sounds unbelievable at best, but it does exist and 
is a common cause of many clocks stopping. Sympathetic vibration is the transfer of 
energy from one object moving with a steady frequency to another object (initially 
not moving( connected to it. The objects will transfer energy very 
efficently if they are the same length , however , they do not have to 
be the same length to transfer energy . A classic example is a large 
grandfather clock with a heavy pendulum and a case that
is set up on a rug.When the weights travel downward and get even with the pendulum 
bob ,the weights will absorb enough energy from the pendulum to either stop the clock
and or start the weights swinging and stop the clock. Also the clock case can absorb 
energy from the pendulum because the case is not solid on the rug. Even the s
lightest instability can cause the clock to stop. On old cases ; if they are loose, if the 
case is not solid, the pend moving will cause the case to oscillate (this may or may 
not be visible) and the case will absorb enough energy to stop the clock. correct 
is by securing the case to the wall. be sure the case is solid. 
	
	If there are several clocks running on a shelf with similar pendulum 
lengths , and the shelf appears solid it still may be possible that the clocks on 
this shelf will transfer energy back and forth. The result may not be just stoppage.
One or both of the clocks may not keep time or may be un-regulatable because they
will affect each other. 
	
	Sympathetic vibration may be demonstrated by a little device with weights 
and strings.  Start one weight swinging and very soon the other one will be swinging, 
and the first one will be stopped. 


			SCORED PIVOTS:
	Actually any kind of inconsistency on a pivot will cause a problem. Keep in 
mind that a clock mechanism operates like a crowbar in reverse. Try operating a
crowbar backwards like this; apply force on the short end of the lever to a load that
you can just barely move. Now add a small weight to the load side and see for 
yourself how much effect it has. This power relationship is similar to the power
transfer that occurs in clock mechanisms.
	A pivot that is not perfectly round will impede power transfer. A pivot 
that is not straight will cause problems : exceptions french clocks and some veinna 
regulators. A pivot that in any way impedes end shake will stop a gear train. Always
check endshake under no power and under partial power. A pivot that is bent , even 
slightly, will cause stoppage. A pivot that is off center with respect to the gears on
its shaft will cause problems. (power loss) . A pivot that is scored will cause problems
(accelerated wear and reduction of available power) . A pivot that is pitted or gouged
will cause problems(  Accelerated wear and power loss) . Any foreign material in the
bushing that comes in contact with the pivot will cause problems (power loss and 
possible wear problems). A pivot that is not long enough to have at least some (.010in.) 
of its working surface outside the plate will cause problems(lack of endshake or improper
wear). Any rust or corrosion on a pivot is catastrophic; if the clock does run ,
it will be only a matter of months before the pivot and bushing are totally destroyed.


PAPER ON BACKS OF CLOCKS - BE CAREFUL WHEN USING AN AIR GUN!!!!!!!!!!

			FAN (governor) BALANCE:

	Clocks that have governor fans must have them balanced. Either replace
the blade or adjust the balance by bending SLIGHTLY  the wings of the fan. Also 
filing some of the edge off on the heavy side will work, In severe cases, it may be
necessary to cut some of the brass off. Some fans are adjustable mainly to vary
the speed of the gear grain; however this adjustability can apply to balancing 
also. Set the desired speed and then with small adjustments set the balance. 
GOVERNORS MUST BE BALANCED OR THEY WILL NOT WORK dependably all the
time. Just rebushing and polishing the pivots will not fix them.
I cannot stress this enough. Here is the typical senerio. You repair a grandfather
clock. The governor bushings are just fine and the pivots are ok. The main wheel bushings 
are bad on the strike and the time
and the depthing of the gear teeth there is way off causing power loss. Enough
to actually stop the clock. You see this and know it because you have seen it thousands of 
times before so you are sure. You spend 6 hours working
on the mechanism and finally get it back together and in the case for the test run. You test
the clock and everything is fine. You take the clock back to the customer and all goes well;
or so you think. A few weeks later you get a call from the customer and they complain "the chimes
don't sound right". You say ok , its just run down and gotten out of sequence. You do a service
call and when you get there everything is fine. So you check the unit out and they customer is
happy , and you think all is well ... you hope all is well.
Three days later you get another call from the customer. Now they are quite upset and 
have the same complaint. Now if you did not know about the fact that governors MUST BE 
BALANCED you would loose a customer and , drive yourself nuts trying to figure out why the
thing keeps getting out of sequence. I discovered the answer to this about 5 years into my 
career. In clocks you have only a very very small amount of power available to turn the governor
or the escape wheel. If the "heavy" side is down when the governor stops ; there sometimes will
not be enough power to get that heavy side to overcome the pull of gravity and the strike ( or
chime ) will stall once. But not every time. Now why ? Well since we are not living in a perfect
world there are always going to be some inconsistancies in gear trains and gear teeth. When
the gears get to the point when there is , lets say , a thousandth of an inch difference
in the spacing of the gear teeth on one of the gears , because you loose power exponentially 
as you go up the gear train, the power lost by this difference is just enough to prevent that 
governor from starting with that heavy side down. There could be any number of factors that 
combine at different times to be just enough to prevent that governor from starting. 
Now you may say that this is crazy. All I can say is that if you do clock repair long enough
you will find out that this is true and you will always check the balance on governors before
you put the clock back together. And you will have less headaches and more happy customers.
This is mainly true in grandfather clock governors as they are sometimes quite large and 
heavy. Spring drive clocks are susceptable because when the mainspring runs down slightly
the power decreases and balance becomes more critical. On smaller governors the 
likelyhood of balance problems decreases somewhat ; but I would still recommend checking
them. If you don't on the first repair and they come back , if you are smart you will check
the balance. I have repaired at least 17,000 clocks in my career and have seen problems 
with far more than that in training other repair technicians and I can tell you for sure
if you are not aware of this problem with governor balance there will be clocks that you
will not be able to figure out. If you are in business , you may be seeing a lot of some of 
your customers that you want to. The downside of being aware of fan balance
is that you might not get as well acquainted with some of your customers!
 
	Governors that work by spinning weights or by friction are not as touchy about 
balance but they are not as dependable as air operated governors. They are also not as 
common; in my opinion, they are not a good design for use in clocks. 
	Most fans ( governors ) also have a clutch that allows them to slip on the shaft .
It must be tight but not too tight. If the clutch is too loose, the fan will slip and the
gear train will move too fast , usually WAY too fast.
If the clutch is too tight , the fan will not slip at all and not enough 
of the shock of the shutoff action will be absorbed and the gear train will bounce
back when it stops. The shutoff cam and shutoff cam pin and any other parts of the 
shutoff mechanism that absorb the shock of the gear train shutting off will be damaged
by the added stress that is supposed to be absorbed by the fan clutch. If the gear train
recoils like this when it shuts off sometimes it will bounce back far enough to jam the
lock pin in the shutoff lever.  
		
		SETH THOMAS COUNT WHEEL SHIPS BELL (ANTIQUE)

	The Seth Thomas count wheel ships bell does not use a rack and snail. The count
wheel is the drive gear and the hammer lift wheel is the idler.There are short pins and
long pins on this wheel. there are 2 hammers with lift tabs: one rides on the long pins
only and the other one rices on both the long and short pins. The count wheel travels
half as fast as the hammer lift wheel. One complete rotation or the hammer lift wheel 
is equal to 4 hours or running time. 


			SELF ADJUSTING VERGE:



				FLOATING BALANCE:

	The floating balance actually hangs from a spring that performs the same
 function as a hairspring. There are 2 jewels on each end of the brass tube press fit in. 
A common  problem is gummy oil stuck inside this tube. On the actual balance wheel
there are 4 radii of weights that control the timekeeping , the fourth radii assembly has
the adjustable section. The weights are removeable and can be reinstalled if necessary. 
It is best to remove weights directly across from each other if possible. 
			
			REPAIRING ESCAPE WHEEL TEETH

	There is a way to repair escape wheel teeth if there are some that are bent
or broken. This is intended at a last resort if there are no other viable options. This
will not always work; only if the teeth aren't too far gone. Chuck the wheel up in the
lathe and be certain it is spinning as true as possible. Very carefully take a fine file
and file the teeth down until they are of a uniform length. This will work if the amount 
needed to file off does not exceed the amount of depth adjustment available. After the 
teeth have been  trimmed reshape them to as close as possible to the original shape. 
Spin the wheel at as high a rpm; as possible and be sure that the teeth are trimmed to be
true with respect to the pivots on the front and back. The file must be held firmly on 
the steady rest or it will file the inconsistancies of the wheel and the new teeth will 
not be true enough to keep the clock in beat; and it will not run. 


		MAINSPRING HOOK IN BARREL:

		MAINSPRING HOOK FOR CLICK SPRING :

		GRAHAM ESCAPEMENT:
	
	The dead beat escapement also known as the graham escapement is 
characterized by its action of lock and slide  ad it operates. This type of system 
can be easily recognized by looking at the verge. Pay particular attention to the 
working faces of the verge, there will be a flat edge where the escape wheel tooth 
hits upon releasing from the opposite side and a sharp edge that the tooth drops off
from the flat part and an angled surface that the tooth slides along as it gives the
pendulum an extra push until it lets go and the whole thing starts again on the other 
side. This type of system is or can be quite accurate because the verge has significant 
control over how much power is delivered to the pendulum. If however there is too
much lock or not enough lock the accuracy and dependability will be questionable 
at best. The depth setting is not the same for all clocks although the principle is the
same. Generally speaking weight drive clocks with heavy pendulums are more 
sensitive and require somewhat shallow depth settings keeping in mind not to 
completely eliminate the  lock segment of the operation.
The following is a list of some of the sensitive clocks: 
seth thomas #2 regulators
most vienna regulators
most french clocks
jewelers regulators (large wall clocks and floor clocks with mercury filled pendulums)
	
				ANCHOR ESCAPEMENT(RECOIL ESCAPEMENT)

	This type of system does not have a lock action , it is simply impact, slide ,
and release. The recoil escapement is less critical to adjust, and generally speaking ,
is more efficient in that it does not take as much power to run. However this type of
system is less accurate because the motion of the pendulum is less isolated from the 
gear train. The escape wheel tends to bounce backwards at each impulse ; and as the 
spring runs down the arc of the pend slows causing less bounce or recoil in a nonlinear
manner.The escape wheel/verge depth on this type of escapement in not as critical as
the dead beat escapement. On most cuckoo clocks the depth should be set so that the 
escape wheel is 80% of the way from completely missing ; to actually hitting on the
edge of the verge on both sides(binding up).Generally speaking, the lighter the
pendulum, the deeper the setting on this type of system, up to the 80% amount. 
Mantle clocks with pendulum lengths of 6 inches or shorter should not be set this
deep; between 60% and 70% is normal on most german time and strike types from the late 
1800's to the mid 50's. If possible the escape wheel should move equally on each 
side of the tick. Often the verge has either been bent or replaced and the escape
wheel will impact,slide and release  further on one side than the other; and in many 
cases the clock will run. My experience has taught me that this is not an extremely 
critical adjustment on this type of verge with respect to whether or not the clock will 
run.If the goal is just to get it to run ; then don't be fussy.To charge a customer a 
premium price for this kind of work , however is quite another matter.The majority of
clocks (excluding cuckoos) that I have seen over the years have an even release distance
on the impact ,slide , and release. If you want to do accurate, original , restoration; 
then set both sides of the sequence equal.     
(describe the setting of the depth)


			
			FUSEE:
	
	Watch the winding stop; be sure the cable pushes it over far enough to actually
hit the pin. Be sure to take the fusee apart and clean it out. The ratchet is on the 
inside not much oil is required to make this part work; too much will cause the ratchet 
to eventually gum up and stop working. At the point where the cable comes out of the
fusee, check very carefully to be sure there are no sharp edges. If you do not remove
these edges , the cable will break. The pendulums on most fusee clocks have the impulse
loop built into the pendulum rod as an actual cut out slot for the impulse pin to
fit into. The surfaces of these slots are critical. They must be free of rough surfaces.
Check for gouges, wear marks, or hardened oil deposits. Also, of course , check for
looseness of the impulse pin. 

			MAINTAINING HOOK:

	On clocks with exceptionally heavy pendulums there is usually a device
called a maintaining hook. It's purpose is to keep pressure on the escape wheel while
the clock is being wound, Without this it would be possible for escape wheel teeth to
be bent when the escape wheel turns slightly backwards and the verge end catches the
escape wheel tooth edge. Most vienna regulators have them. Most large grandfather
clocks have them Always look for the gear on the main wheel (it is usually spring 
loaded). It usually looks like a large ratchet wheel. If the wheel is there but there
is no hook, then expect problems with the escape wheel. Make a hook; and install it or
have nothing to do with the clock because the escape wheel will eventually be damaged.
				

			WHAT WILL CAUSE TIMEKEEPING PROBLEMS: 

	There are a number of things that will cause timekeeping problems. Some
are true generally speaking and some are specific to certain clocks. The following is
a list of the generally speaking problems: 
set mainspring
improperly lubed mainspring
damaged mainspring--- scratched ,rusted or pitted spring : or a spring with lumps 
caused from the shape of the spring upon itself being wound for years and years. 
worn weight pulley
gummy oil
worn or loose bushings 
loose suspension post
incorrect mainspring
sympathetic vibration
damaged threads on the pendulum adjusting nut
\regulator end of key damaged
bent suspension spring
loose verge
worn gear teeth
worn roller pinions and or worn roller pinion bushings
incorrect weight on time gear train
loose hand clutch
scored pivots or pivot
too much play in impulse loop
incorrect gear ratio
incorrect center of gravity on the pendulum bob
incorrect pendulum weight
incorrect suspension spring thickness
mainspring run down
unstable running position
out of beat
mainspring catching on gear teeth or click rivet or click spring hooks 
damaged escape wheel teeth 
moon dial gear binding 
incorrect verge escape wheel depth (shallower depth will generally make the clock
run faster because the swing is reduced making less time between ticks.


			STOPPAGE PROBLEMS:

	It doesn't take much to stop a clock. The most common problem is failure to
wind the mainsprings up all the way. This is a user/owner problem. 
Generally speaking if a clock is stopping after it has been rebuilt check the following:
Check the beat setting
check endshake check for tight bushings
check the position of the impulse arm vs susp rod 
check for bent escape wheel teeth 
check for bent teeth (even slightly) every where in the gear train
check for a mounting bind (with the mechanism is mounted in the case if one of the
mounting feet is even slightly bent it can cause any one or all of the gear trains to 
bind) check for barrell teeth hitting #2 wheel teeth on endshake minimum or maximum.
check for worn gear teeth 
check for proper gear depthing 
are the mainsprings the correct strength?
is the suspension the correct strength?
possibly the pendulum is the wrong weight
Hands rubbing on the glass at any point in the 360 degree rotation? (put your finger on
the glass over where the minute hand is located and if the hand looks closer to your 
finger than the glass is thick then the hand is probably hitting on the glass.)
check for a bushing not oiled
are the hands touching each other at all anywhere?
when the clock stops , very carefully check to determine if there is any power to 
the escape wheel; if there is power then be more concerned about pendulum friction,
sympathetic vibration, or suspension problems. If there is absolutely no ; or very
little then there is probably a gear train problem. 
is there any air circulation around the pendulum? 
are the weights magnetized and is the pendulum brass plated steel?
is the pendulum touching the back of the clock ?
Is the clock;ck sitting on a solid surface? 
is the clock hanging plumb on the wall?
Is the hour tube binding?
are the chime or strike levers binding because of lack of oil or rough edges?
check the suspension post to see if the suspension is loose--- If it is loose the clock
will probably stop. 
check for pallet face wear
check all lubrication points. 


			PLATING ON PIVOTS:

	The plating on pivots must be removed if it has started to pit or peel. This is 
one of the biggest problems the modern german mechanisms have had for 10 or 15 
years now. you can tell by the color of the metal if the pivot is plated. The steel in 
most pivots has a very slight yellowish color compared to the metal on the inside of the
plating. the herschede clocks have a plating on their pivots and below the plating there
is a copper colored metal that must also be polished. If it is not polished completely 
the bushings will wear very quickly, and also severe power loss will result. 
GEAR DEPTHING:

			IMPULSE ARM---IMPULSE LOOP:

			 PUTTING A CLOCK IN BEAT:
	All clocks must have maximum power transfer to the pendulum or they will 
not run dependably. This means they must be in beat. Try to imagine the pendulum and 
verge as a swing and the person pushing as the escape wheel. When the clock is in beat
the escape wheel gives the pendulum a push at just the right time in the same way as a
person gives the swing a push just as it arrives back and at the instant it starts back
on its return trip. 

	The verge clutch will usually allow the beat to be set by adjusting the position 
of the impulse arm until it is at the true center at rest with the mechanism and case set 
level and plumb. Be very careful when setting the beat; sometimes the verge clutch is 
set so tight that the escape wheel teeth can be bent without realizing it. 
	If the beat is set, but the clock gets in beat ant they out of beat; check for
bent escape wheel teeth if the the  in beat and out of beat: has a regular repeating
pattern. If there is not a regular pattern then the problem is probably a loose verge.
The clutch can be ok but the verge can be loose on the shaft. 
	when setting the beat on a clock if possible do it by sight and sound. 
	Setting the beat on a balance wheel is just as important as the beat on the
pendulum units. The hairspring collar can usually be moved if need be, it is a delicate
operation. Practice on spare parts!
CENTERPOST CAM REMOVAL:

	Quite often it becomes necessary to remove the centerpost cam so that the
hand end of the centerpost can be rebushed.Be sure the plate is adequately braced and 
supply solid surface for the support. The surface must be as solid as a cement floor. 
In fact  I have had to use the cement floor as a support many times. If the support 
surface has any give you will end up destroying the shaft , and possibly the cam also.
If the collar is made correctly and the punches are used and made correctly , it
will be possible to remove almost any center post cam. When the centerpost is 
off be sure to taper it with emery paper before reinstalling the cam. Remember
it will only take a few minutes to do. remember if the centerpost bushing is worn 
it will have to bee rebushed or the clock will not work. I have observed many 
repairs come back to haunt those who thought they could get by with a fast job
and a quick buck. This end remember usually has the chime trip cam if it wiggles 
up and down or side to side the trip position will be erratic and too the self 
correct will not work.
	Another word about cam removal in general: sometimes they will pop
off when you are not ready , go flying somewhere out of sight and you will not
be able to find them. One good way to avoid loosing them is to put a rag over the 
cam when you are working it loose: this will hold it if it pops loose before you expect.


		JAUCH MECHANISM CHIME CAM:
	The chime cam , and the chime hammer drive gear, are held in place by
setscrews that have very sharp points on the end that is inside. When they are
tightened up , they make a disruptive gouge in the shaft; which is ok until you try
to resequence. Often the cam or the gear will slip back into those gouges when the 
setscrews are tightened. You will fight it for hours unless you find some way around
the gouges. Grind off the end of the set screws or replace them, and smooth the
shaft, then tighten the setscrews and the wheel or cam will stay where you put it.
Things to be aware of on specific types of clocks:

		Time and Strike AMERICAN CLOCKS:

	Most time and strike (hour /half hour) american clocks work on similar
theory. Most of them use a count wheel with count arm and trip levers on the
inside of the plate. Keep in mind that the bushings that the shutoff and trip levers
ride on must not be too loose.
Be sure that the trip lever moves far enough before releasing the lock lever so
that the warning pin on the 4th wheel will be hooked by enough of the warning 
lever so that the action will be dependable.Keep in mind that because of the nature 
of the american time and strike  clocks there must always be some play in the bushings ,
particularly the shutoff and locking lever bushings.Any tighter than .002in. will 
cause intermittent problems that may be impossible to find; any looser than .005in.
will also cause intermittent problems. 
	Some of the new haven mechanisms will have a shutoff that uses the 
actual lever hooking on the 3rd wheel (a slot in the plane attached to the 3rd wheel) 
o shutoff the gear train. The shutoff will usually be spring loaded. They are very 
tricky because the angle must be such that a minimum of drag is put on the gear train.
The shutoff end must be at 0 degrees to a line drawn through it and the shaft of the 
3rd wheel. Do not under any circumstances change this angle. Do, however, be
sure that the surface of the slot and the lever are polished.
	Be sure to check the lantern pinions on all the wheels for wear. Also
be sure to check the mainsprings; take them off the arbor , unwind them and 
check for cracks or distorted areas. They must be replaced if there is a problem.
	On the units that have a trip lever that is just an  L shaped piece of wire 
be absolutely sure, when it is apart, that the wire is tight. If it is not the trip
position will be off: it will either strike before the 12 or after it: and it will have 
to be disassembled to fix this tiny little problem. 
	There are some of the american Time and strike clocks that have alarms that are 
set by a brass or silver colored ring in the center of the dial. The ring will usually
have roman numerals on it (1 through 12). There will usually be a small movement 
at the bottom of the case with a separate size key and a small mainspring and a verge
and a very heavy duty escape wheel that runs on it. To set these alarms first be sure
the alarm is wound. (THESE ALARMS ARE VERY LOUD , BE PREPARED
FOR LOTS OF NOISE!!!) Then,  line up the XII on the alarm ring with the hour
hand. Then,  set the strike sequence and bring the clock around to the 12 o'clock
position to check if the XII is indeed at the 12 o'clock position when the alarm 
trip lever drops and the alarm sounds; if so, then  line up the hour hand with the 
roman numeral of the desired hour that alarm is to go off by turning  the small
ring with the numerals clockwise.  (it is friction fit on the hour tube and can be
turned with a slight effort)Be sure to not disturb the hour hand. 
	The trip/lock lever setup on the 8 and 1 day time and strike american clocks 
must be watched closely on th lock position. The pin n the warning wheel(usually the 4th 
wheel) must catch and hold on the lever edge solidly and must have at least the diameter 
of the pin over and above when all the slack is backed off the hands and the 
bushings on the levers must be reasonably tight or the clock will not stay in sequence.
The fact to remember here is that the clock may work ok for a while but then after 
he customer gets the clock home and runs it for a while then it will act up. this is 
critical: check this out very carefully. If you get a return and don't check it out you
will get bit by a mad customer. 
Cover the Junghans w/c with winding gears.


			CUCKOO CLOCKS:

	The modern cuckoo clock is available in musical and non musical
versions. The musical version has several variations. The music mechanism 
can be mounted on the side of the case (usually on the right looking in the back)
or on the top inside just below the roof. 
	All of these versions are available with count wheel mechanisms in one 
day or eight day versions. Most of these (with count wheels) that are musical have 
a worm gear drive governor with a large vertical fan mounted on the movement. be 
cautious of these , they tend to bind up often and won't tolerate much wear. The 
music sounding part is mounted on the side usually and has only brass drum and 
the steel fingers there being no need for a governor assembly.
	Commonly the roof mount mechanisms are 1 day units. There are 2 basic 
types of shutoffs: one that simply moves in and out of a hole in the side of the drive 
gear on the melody sounding drum, and another that has a graduated slot that the 
shutoff lever is moved out of and above a ridge on the drive gear so it holds the shutoff
open until the valley comes back around and the shutoff lever drops in and the tab 
hooks the fan. On this type the secret is that the lock lever must snap out and up from
the shutoff hole to keep it going. These are usually either 22 note or 18 note units.
	All of the music mechanisms have small dampers cemented to the bottom 
of the fingers on the sounding bar. These dampers must come in contact with the small
pins on the brass drum the instant before the pin comes in contact with small finger 
on the sounding bar as the music mechanism is in operation. The purpose of this is
to prevent a squeaking sound from occurring as the pin contacts the finger while it is
still vibrating from the last stroke. If these dampers are missing or defective they
must be replaced or the music mechanism will squeak. That is it. There is no other 
way, Do not attempt to oil the sounding fingers ; this will not stop the squeak without
causing the sound to deaden, and will eventually thoroughly gum up the mechanism
and ruin it.

			HUBERT HERR CUCKOOS:
	
	These mechanisms have a shutoff system that depends entirely on gravity to
operate. Do not oil this system or it will not work.Looking at the mechanism from 
the front: the shutoff lever reaches across the outside and drops down on the rod 
with the little brass weight that looks like a bushing and pops it out of the way of
the locking lever on the inside of the plate. The angles here are critical. Do not change 
them. Be sure the position of the 3rd wheel does not change ; if it is rebushed the lock 
will not set and hold if this wheel position changes.Oiling this causes the thing to
hang up fr9om the surface tension of the oil. If it is hanging up , polish it carefully
but do not oil the hook or the rod.
	some of the older cuckoos do not have an inspection hole in the back to
allow access to the gong and hammer for adjustment. There are several ways
around this. The least desirable is to drill a hole near the center of the gong. 
The reason I say least desirable is this : you may very well end up with a very
angry customer when they see the hole you drilled in their prized 100 year old 
family heirloom that great grampa brought from germany during world war 1. 
Do not ever alter someone's clock unless you have a very good understanding 
with them; and even then you are taking a big chance. The best way is to adjust 
the hammer/gong clearance before the bellows are installed. The hammer and 
gong can be seen through the hole for the bellow. It is possible to reach the 
hammer with an adjustment tool. Bend the hammer not the gong. I am remembering 
here the time I was adjusting a cuckoo for a customer at the counter ; and just a slight 
adjustment on the gong and ........... OH NO!!!!!!!! Guess what happened ? the gong 
broke off in my hand. Unbeknownst to me and the customer the last person to work on 
the clock had taken the fatal short cut and bent the gong several times just enough.
Hubert herr roof mount music mechanism : trip lever has to be absolutely free to move or 
the clock will not cuckoo because there is no return spring.
Just enough to weaken it and now it was my turn to break it. Bend the hammer , 
not the gong.
	The 1 day regula cuckoo clock movements with 77mm x 75mm plates
(stamped with 35) have common pendulum lengths of 28.5 cm and 20.5cm. The smaller
regula movement 73mm x 63mm usually is available in 23.5cm pendulum length. These 
are the same chain size. 61links per foot and a wire diameter of .035in.. The pendulum 
length is measured from the suspension post to the center of the  pendulum, bob or leaf.
SESSIONS 2 SPRING W/C:
	Set the hour trip position on the front cam and coordinate with cam on the
 back of the centerpost: cam on back of centerpost should move the pin on the hammer 
lift assembly into sequence hole before the quarter hour trip and them drop off edge 
n the half hour . Be sure the idler gear on the front plate is tight. The cam on the back 
of the centerpost must be tight . Set the hammer sequence at the ¼ after position. 

					QUARTER HOUR REPEATERS:

	The quarter hour repeaters of the small brass and glass french clock type will 
almost always have a button on top to push that activates the strike. If it has a button 
on top it is most certainly a genuine repeater. A true repeater does not have a warning 
pin or a lock position before it strikes. when it trips it releases that is it. One of the
reasons for this design is so that the repeat button will work at almost any time . If 
there were a lock position , the repeat button would not work when the strike was in the
lock mode. 
				WEIGHT DRIVE VIENNA REGULATORS:  

			PIN LEVER ESCAPEMENT (OLD SETH THOMAS):

			SETH THOMAS #2 REGULATOR:

	The Seth Thomas #2 regulator pendulum cannot be put on the stick upside down 
or the clock will run slow. The pendulum is not symmetrical. Be sure to check this. 
		Some times there will be a clock that comes to you with a cam attached 
to a shaft with a setscrew that has been broken off making it almost impossible to get the 
cam off. ;Most of the time this cam can be removed by cutting a slot on the screw where it
sits flush with the surface of the cam. Be sure to cut the slot deep enough so that maximum
torque can be applied to the broken screw on the first try; you will usually only get one 
chance so make it count. 
	To reposition the minute hand after removing the centerpost cam use the square
end of an old file . Insert it in the hand hub bushing hold the end of the file with a pair 
of pliers and slide the hand forward or backward as needed until it matches the trip point 
at 12 0;clock . To loosen up the hub hit over a punch / anvil that just fits the edge of the
hand bushing. This will loosen up the bushing enough to allow it to be moved. 
				

			JAPENESE MECHANISMS: 	  

	One that says  crown on the front of the mechanism; it has a rack and snail, and
a clutch system hooked to the hour hand. The mainsprings hook around retainer rids that
make it almost impossible to disassemble and assemble the mechanism by clamping the 
mainsprings in the usual manner. The secret here is to repair the mechanism without
clamping the mainsprings . Let them all the way down ; there will be about 8 or 9
feet of loose floppy mainspring dangling about the bench. take the centerpost cam off
if possible before separating the plates; it will be much easier to disassemble. If you
make a jig to hold the springs ,and steady the mechanism, it will be feasible to do
the work this way. Be sure to double and triple check the bushings before the final 
assembly is done; its a long procedure to pre-disassemble this particular mechanism. 
It's cumbersome but is easier to get it back together without bending or breaking pivots.
Be sure that the mainsprings are inside the retaining pins as the mechanism is 
disassembled; its too late to move them after the mechanism is reassembled. 
			

			FLOOR CLOCKS:
			LORENZE FURTWANGFLER and SHONE:

	The initials on the back of this mechanism are l w s inscribed in a circle on
the back of the mechanism. This is a westminster chime mechanism with some 
unusual sequencing levers. The drive gear shaft through the front plate serving also 
as the clutch is not so unusual. The trip lever is attached to the front plate on a post 
and held on position by a coil spring attached directly above it. The lock and warning 
lever are held in place by a coil spring also. The trip lever and the lock / warning lever 
works with the trip lever to keep it in place. If the hands get forced ahead one of the 
places that are affected is point a. It will get bent too far to the right and then the
lift pins on the minute wheel will not be able to lift the lock/warning lever far enough 
to release the warning pin  in the chime gear train. Pay  close attention to the roller: 
it should move freely and when it drops into the shutoff areas it should do so almost
immediately and at the same time the gear train should shut off.The roller is attached 
to a plate that is fastened with screws to the trip/lock lever: this allows for adjustment
of the position of the roller as far as up and down is concerned (the holes in the
roller plate are slotted) . When the gear train starts moving for the next chime sequence; 
be sure that the shutoff pin on the wheel does not catch the lock lever on the second 
time around.This will happen if the position of the roller is set too close to the next 
lobe on the sequence cam. The trip lever will hang up if the trip pin and the working
face of the lock/warning lever gets worn. The mechanism that I worked on had
that problem. the chime would trip but the lever would hang up. the working 
face at B had a groove worn in it and the trip pin had a flat spot in it. The trip pin 
can be twisted so a new working face can be utilized and face b can be filed and 
polished. If the pin can't be turned, it will have to be replaced if the mechanism
will not work. the self correct pin does its job by moving the trip lever into position so
the front pin can reach the front partition of the trip lever. It works on the high lift
principal, its just that the lever A pushes the trip cam back farther back when the 
lock /warning  lever drops into the deeper area on the ¾ hour position.
KEYS:
	One of the biggest problems that customers have with clocks is winding 
them. Many times the keys that are available do not properly fit the arbors, and the
customer ends up with a trashed clock and in some cases a very sore finger. Be
absolutely that the clock you are working on has the correct key.



	When installing jewels be sure to check the edge of the hole that the 
reamer makes be sure the jewel seats down . If there is an edge with a lop in it; ore 
that likely the jewel will not seat properly and the 
WATERBURY CLOCKS : 

	Waterbury made a triple plate self correcting lantern pinion mechanism with
time and strike style shutoff wires. On the left side back plate looking at the unit from 
the front , the lever on top of the trip lever is the self correct lever. Stamped on the 
back of the movement: Patented 5/24/1910 ; 1/23/1917 ; 1/29//1918 ; 5/21/1918 ; 5/27/1919 
6/5/1924 ; 4/14/1925.  
	The best way to approach this mechanism, if an overhaul is planned , is to
treat it as two separate mechanisms with a common middle plate. As far as bushings 
are concerned , this is the least confusing, in my opinion, unless you are fortunate
enough to work in an environment where it is possible to work uninterrupted. I prefer 
to do the chime mechanism first, because it is often necessary to rebush the gear 
system that winds the mainspring. Those gears are hard steel so be careful. they are 
usually somewhat loose on the shaft, and that is not usually a problem, Just be sure
the bushings are as tight as possible. Check the #2 wheel chime bushing on the 
long end of the shaft; it is very close to the movement post, and if it is worn too 
severely, it may be a problem to get a bushing to fit. Be sure to assemble the chime
silent lever before the mechanism is completely assembled. The trip lever is the one 
with the flat blued steel arm that extends into the front mechanism (the  front 
mechanism being the section that carries the centerpost and the hour tube hand end) .
The self correct lever is directly above the trip lever. The lock pin for the self 
correct stop on the 4th wheel must go past the self correct stop on all but the hour; so
that when it releases on the hour it will be clear of the lock pin when it starts the 
travel for the hour sequence. The short tab on the bottom of the self correct lever 
fits in the small hole in the middle plate.
	This mechanism has a rack and snail on the front plate. The gathering pallet 
has 2 pins. The chime is tripped by the chime trip cam in the front plate mechanism 
on the back of the centerpost. There is a high lift on this cam that is meant to trip the 
chiming mechanism at the hour on the self correct. Looking at the back plate from 
the back of the clock the self correcting lever is on the upper right hand corner. It 
has a 3 pronged tension washer to hold it in place when it is moved by the pin on 
the 3rd wheel. The triple plate design allows for the time gear train and the strike 
ear train to be positioned at the front and the chime at the back. The warning wheel
(5th wheel)) in the chime gear train has almost one turn before the lock position; 
this allows for the self-correct to function properly. the pin on the 4th wheel is the 
self correct pin. It works with the self correct lever; the high lift moves the lever to 
clear this pin on the hour. the sequence cam is on  the 3rd wheel. the 3rd wheel 
o has a pin on the front of the wheel to trip the strike and a pin on the back to set 
the self correct lever to grab the pin on the 4th wheel.All of the slots on the 3rd
wheel are the same depth because the self correct is done with the levers, This
mechanism has a through the dial regulator at the 12 o'clock position and a chime 
silent lever below that . the rack index arm will move: it is riveted on in the
mechanisms i have seen. The setting of the index arm is critical because the 
shutoff arm that rides in the grooves must be adjusted so it will work in conjunction
with the gathering pallet. It must shutoff with the last pin on the gathering pallet
having just cleared the last tooth on the rack. The mainspring measurements are as follows: 
Time mainspring:.018in. X .750in. X 96in.
Strike mainspring: .014in. X .874in. X 78in.
Chime mainspring:  .0225in. X .874in. X 78in.
		

			WARNING PIN POSITION:

	The warning pin position determines how much spin the strike or chime gear 
train has before the hammer load or any load is applied to it. This as absolutely critical on
some mechanisms and on others not  so critical.Generally speaking , if there is trouble
with the chime or strike binding it may very well be that there is not enough gear travel 
before the load is applied. 
Seth thomas 124 
seth Thomas 113
chelsea 
french clocks
gustave bekker
Hubert Herr cuckoos
Regula cuckoos
Junghans
NOT SO CRITICAL:
One day german count wheel cuckoos
Quail cuckoos
Seth Thomas Time and Strike with strike lift pins on the #2 wheel
	Remember that there must be enough spin left at the end of the chime to 
allow enough space between the end of the chime melody and the beginning of the
strike count so that they sound separate. The governors must always be Balanced.
If the strike or chime binds , it may be that the fans ore out of balance. Always 
check the balance on the fans; they must be as close to perfect as possible. This is true 
on all mechanisms with mechanical governors that operate primarily in the upright position.
	Chime bind on large 3/c popular european mechanism /kienninger grandfather clock movements: 
check pulleys; hammer
lift alignment ; lift pin burrs; throw out arm must be perfectly straight ; 90deg. to
 hammer
lift drum. Check hammer pivot shaft support and spring ten sion and amount of lift.
On the Chelsea; watch the drive gear for the balance wheel unit ; it can be put in 
backwards.
	To protect a wheel while heating a shaft; drill a hole in a piece of brass the
size of the shaft that the wheel it on . A piece big enough to cover the wheel. 
	Some hammer assembly shafts on floor clocks are threaded that will make 
the hammers not line up with  the hammer lift pins if the shaft is un-threaded slightly; 
be sure to check this. 
THE SETH THOMAS 115D:
	The seth thomas 115d is a ships strike round mechanism. It Has a
non-imported balance wheel unit . It uses a cam in the idler gear to make odd count 
lifts lever that catches hammer. gravity-spring-counter weight return on rack. 
].010in.spring.
spring loaded rack index end pops back in case mechanism runs down this spring ..021in..brass.
Trip lever return:.013in.brass;-.010in.inside plate on this also. Hammer return spring 
.016in.; 
brass.Be sure there is at least 180 degrees of rotation on the warning wheel after the 
warning position; or the odd hour strikes will be erratic because the hammer catch wont 
always hook.
	 In the event that the balance wheel unit on this clock is damaged beyond repair,
an old popular european mechanism PIN lever platform escape unit will work ; however the
escape wheel will have to be turned over on its shaft because the gear train of the seth 
thomas turns the opposite direction of the popular european mechanism mechanism. The pinion
gear tooth count is 8 leaves , the same
is in the orig. seth thomas. The regulator device needs to be modified to fit in the slot 
on the dial. A small hole drilled in the regulator arm of the popular european mechanism 
unit with a taper pin carefully riveted in will work just fine. The popular european
mechanism
unit will just fit under the dial. The 
mounting holes do not fit exactly ; however some careful modifications will allow the
use of the popular european mechanism platform escape unit. It must be a pin lever though
because the unit with the jeweled fork will see the escape wheel backwards unless the jewels
are reversed , which i haven't tried.  


			MAINSPRING END REPAIR
	Often it will be necessary to repair the end or a mainspring because it will be
impossible to find a suitable replacement. This can be done by drawing the temper on
the end of the spring after the bad end has been cut off. Heat the end )before the new 
hole is drilled) until it is cherry red and then reduce the heat slowly by slowly . 
About ½ inch per second or slower will work until the flame is about a foot or so away. 
Be careful. The end will still be hot for a few minutes. Put the spring in a vise with the
length that is to be softened exposed so that it can be worked on safely with the torch. 
After the end has been softened and completely cooled; take it out of the vise and 
punch a dot (at the center of the spot where the end hook is to be( and drill out the new 
hole. I prefer to use a found hole that just fits the hook inside the barrell. be absolutely 
sure that there are no sharp edges or cuts where the hook holds the end because that
will cause the end to break again. Be sure to leave enough on the other side of the hole
to protect the end. 


				GONG REPAIR 	
	Coil gongs can be repaired . No need to solder them. Solder will not work unless
you have the skill to work with metals this way.Soft solder will not work. Press a b;ushing
 in the old hole , the press-fit the gong back in. Carefully clamp the gong ind in the vise and 
tap the black in. This will work if the gong end is properly sized to fit tightly in the 
bushing. 


				SALEM SHIPS BELL
	Setting the sequence on this clock can be frustrating.I suggest starting the
process of setting the sequence at the 1 bell interval (12:30; or 4:30; or 8:30). The
small pan  shaped washer that is attached to the back of the centerpost with a nut must
be in the  Up or high lift position on the  half hour  position.The triangular shaped
cam on the 3rd wheel must be attached so that when the gear train is in the shutoff
position , the pin on the shutoff lever rests on one of the 3 flat sides of the cam
precisely in the middle 
the side. The star wheel consists of alternating lift teeth in pairs. At the shutoff 
point;
the second tooth must have just let go when the gear train stops (only 4 or 5 rotations 
of the fan); this allows for the hammer end to be in the down position for the pin to 
catch the end and hold the hammer up in the air for the half hour thing.Always check 
the stetting of the rack indexing lever; i have found that in most cases these have 
been forced somehow and they have slipped and are not accurately dropping in the
rack teeth. If you do all the adjusting and don't check this first you will most
likely drive your self nuts. The index pin must drop exactly in the valley of the rack
tooth. 


			RACK AND SNAIL PRINCIPALS 


			SHORT PENDULUMS
	Clocks with short pendulum lengths(5 inches and shorter) will be very prone 
to errors due to loose suspensions , loose regulator assemblies and loose bushings in the 
verge. The reason for this is that the error caused is a large percentage of the total
pendulum length. If a clock with a 45 inch pend has a loose regulator screw that varies 
by .1inches , then the percentage is .22%. The same variation on a 5 inch pendulum 
would be 2% or almost 10 times as much error. 

		KEY OPERATED REGULATORS
	Clocks with key operated regulator assemblies that typically adjust from the 
dial are exceptionally prone to error from loose parts. If any part of the
regulator is excessively loose ; the clock will not keep good time. The part above the
stationary 
post is also included in this. If the regulator is going to be used it must be tight 
tight 
everywhere. Take it completely apart if need be ; but take care to tighten up all parts
on it. The threads must be tight on the shaft that runs the device up and down as 
on the seth thomas movement.

		HAND TRIP POSITION
	Many minute hands have a hub with a square hole in the center and the hub
is usually riveted or friction fit in a round hole in the hand use the end of an old 
file to fit in the square hole. Hold the file end with a pair of pliers and slide the hub
until the hand trip position is accurate.

		Modern DOUBLE DIAL CALENDAR CLOCK
	The wire spring on the feburary. cam will come loose often.The position is
critical~ Won't advanced the month if its too shallow; and advances the month on 
each day if its set too deep. The lift of the trip mechanism is also critical; it must be
just high enough to change. Also the lift pin on the trip mechanism comes loose 
often. the double ratchet spring on advance shape is absolutely critical. Month Advance 
must be flat on all surface of Tooth.
REVERE ELECTRIC W/BALANCE WHEEL AUXILLARY 
	The revere electric with balance wheel auxillary has auto-shift from electric motor
to balance wheel unit. The shift lever is weight / gravity activated. do not oil.Engage-
disengage is auto-activated by a lift pin on the minute wheel: the weight drops in and 
engages the balance wheel. The pin on the minute/second hand wheel pushes it out again. 
While  the minute wheel is in the disengage position about 10 degrees or so of 
rotation. the clearance between the coil field and the hold in lever will determine 
whether or not it hums loudly or just barely. 
TUNING GONG RODS
	Generally speaking, if two rods are the same length, the rod with the smaller
diameter will produce a lower note. It is possible to lower the pitch slightly by filing
off some at the top of the rod where it is tapered at the point where it joins with the
threaded end.


			SELF ADJUSTING VERGE
	The self adjusting verge is used on many of the modern mechanisms.
The idea is that if the tension of the verge clutch is set just tight enough to push
the pendulum ; but loose enough to allow it to split the difference between each
side of the impulse with a specially designed escape wheel that has indentations on
the teeth. After running for 
ten or fifteen minutes and having the difference split minutely at each tick , the clock
will be in beat. Its a good idea and it does work usually. The most common problem 
with this kind of verge is stopping. Typically they will not stay in beat if they are too 
tight, and then they will stop. If they are too loose, they may stay in beat , but will
not run dependably. DO NOT EVER OIL ONE OF THESE SELF-ADJUSTING VERGES. YOU WILL RUIN IT 
IF YOU OIL IT. DO NOT EVER PUT ONE OF
THESE IN AN ULTRASONIC CLEANER ; THIS WILL DO THE SAME TYPE OF DAMAGE AS OILING THEM.


			BARRELL CAPS
	describe how to install barrell caps if they are loose.Installing a barrell
 cap on a mainspring barrell can be a frustrating experience if the cap does not fit
snugly.Many times the caps have been forced or gouged and distorted from 
mis-handling.More often the barrell itself has been distorted where the cap fits on. 
There is usually a small groove with a shoulder that keeps the cap from sliding 
too far into the spring.If the barrell has been soldered; expect the cap to be loose
.If you see scratches and deep gouges around the edge; this is another warning sign. 
If the cap has been removed and installed too many times,the barrell will get
warped and the cap will not fit tightly. 
	A barrell cap can be installed by clamping the barrell and the cap at one
 edge snugly ,but not destructively, in a vise with SMOOTH jaws , and then with a
leather or hardwood mallet, the other edge can be installed with some sharp tapping.
PICTURE.Do not squeeze the barrell/cap combination tight enough to distort or 
destroy the small edge that holds the cap. I have also installed the caps by holding
one end of the barrell/cap in my hand and tapping on the cap with a wooden mallet
with the tooth side of the barrell sitting on a SOLID spot on the bench.This is faster
but a little bit more difficult.PICTURE. If the cap is loose IE: doesn't stay put DO NOT
START WITH TRYING TO MAKE THE BARRELL OPENING SMALLER. DO
NOT TRY TO MODIFY THE BARRELL. Start with the cap.With a polished piece 
of hard steel as an anvil ; work the edges of the cap outward gradually by hitting the 
cap evenly around the entire circumference of its outer edge with a polished hammer.
Stay as close to the edge as possible without actually hitting the edge. If the cap is 
steel ; this method will work ; however it will take much longer to get the diameter 
of the cap increased.  If one is very careful the diameter of the cap can be increased 
enough to make the cap stay put nicely. Be sure to carefully check the barrell for
cracks in the sides.As one can imagine; it will not be possible to get the cap to fit
tightly if the barrell is cracked.Again; do not try to modify the barrell edge; the cap
will hold if it fits snugly. Always check the barrells before you take them apart. 
If there is evidence of butchery , plan on much grief in trying to get the barrell caps 
to fit properly.Don't forget to check the cap to be sure it is flat and not cupped 
before installing it on the barrell. 


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The content of this website has been prepared to provide information about clocks with particular relevance to repair. The information is not a complete source of information on clocks or repair. Use at your own risk. Any advice given by the author also is covered by this statement. Your use of this information is your acceptance of responsibility for all consequences resulting in such use. In developing the content of this document, every effort has been made to ensure its accuracy and relevance. It is however possible that errors or omissions in the content may exist. No legal liability attaches to the author , the website , or the isp for any inaccurate or misleading information contained on the website at any time or for the consequences of any errors or omissions or for the use of said information.

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